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Database / armed forces  / air space defence troops


 [cross-references: • Armaments of Russian Strategic Military Forces
 [cross-references: • Main Armaments of Russian Military Forces]
 [cross-references: • Main Armaments of Russian Air Force and Air Space Defence]
 [cross-references: • Main Armaments of Ground Forces]
 [cross-references: • State of the Russian Navy

Table 1. MoD commands and military deployments

-- no records --


Chief--Col Gen Valery Gerasimov (11.2012). Ex Chief- Nikolai Makarov, Col Gen (since 06.2008). Ex-Chief- BALUYEVSKIY, Yuriy Nikolayevich, Col-Gen. (Krasnaya Zvezda, 11 Oct 97; , 20 Feb 02). Ex-First Deputy Chief of Ground Forces. Previous-Chief: Gen. Kvashnin. Directorates and Organizations ...[+]


SH-08 ABM-3 Gazelle
Short-range ABM interceptor missile which was first introduced in the mid 1980s, tasked with destroying the ballistic missiles that will evade the ABM-1 interceptors. The SH-08 Gazelle is very similar to the U.S. Sprint ABM interceptor deployed in 1974. The Gazelle is a nuclear-armed endoatmospheric ...[+]

SH-11 ABM-4 Gorgon
ABM interceptor missile introduced in the mid 1980s. Improved ABM-1b, based in silos surrounding Moscow. These are modified Galosh ABM missiles, those which first constituted the Moscow ABM system. Thirty-six remain in operation, based in silos surrounding Moscow. These missiles are designed ...[+]

OKNO ("Window") / Stationary Space Objects
Searching optoelectronic station of detection stationary space objects and Optoelectronic station of measuring angle coordinates and photometric measurement are parts of the "Window" optoelectronic complex of controlling the outer space. Searching optoelectronic station of detection stationary ...[+]

Hen House (Dnepr)
In 1991, the ground-based SPRN component consisted of nine early warning stations with 19 long-range early warning radars (including radars under construction) of various age, representing several generations of development. Five of the radars were the aging Dnestr and Dnestr-M [NATO name ...[+]

Pechora LPAR (Daryal)
The next stage of the development of the early warning radar network was the effort to deploy large phased-array radars of the Daryal (Pechora) type.13 An important feature of the new radar was that its receiving (or transmitting) station could use the existing Dnepr transmitting (or, correspondingly, ...[+]

Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorised in the decree of 3 August 1964. During development, in comparison to the original polyblock design, the engine performances were improved by about 5 seconds; the mass of the first stage increased by 71 tonnes; the second stage ...[+]

Tsyklon 3
Filial 4 of NII MO began work in 1967 on military operations plans for the 1971-1980 period. These were completed as plan Prognoz and Sirius Phase I in 1970. One objective of the plans was to reduce the number of military space launch vehicles from ten to three. The medium category space launch ...[+]

Zenit (Zenith)
First stage also used as strap-ons for Energia heavy booster. Zenit 2 version proposed using Block D third stage. Launch pads at Baikonur; those at Plesetsk still not finished. Considered for launch from Australia / Cape York. Now Zenit will be launched by US-Russia-Ukrainian joint venture ...[+]

Oko (US-KS)
Launches of early-warning satellites into highly elliptical orbits are performed by Molniya-M launchers from the Plesetsk launch site in the northern Russia. In the beginning of the program, there were serious problems with reliability of the satellites. Of the first 13 satellites, launched ...[+]

Potok (Geizer, 11F663)
Potok military relay satellites - code named Geizer - handle communications between ground stations and digital data from the Yantar-4KS1 and Yantar-4KS1M electro-optical reconnaissance satellite. Potok was the first communications spacecraft built by the Lavochkin design bureau. The Slav-2 ...[+]

Uragan-M (GLONASS-M, 11F654M)
GLONASS (Globalnaya Navigationnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema, Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System) is a Russian space-based navigation system comparable to the American GPS system, which consists of Uragan spacecraft. The operational system contains 21 satellites in 3 orbital planes, with ...[+]

RLS VZG Voronezh-DM/M
The Voronezh-DM is an energy-efficient, long-range surveillance radar designed to track ballistic missiles at ranges of up to 4,000 kilometers. Armavir, in Krasnodar region Southern Russia, is the first site equipped with the Voronezh-DM radar system. It was put on combat duty on February ...[+]

CINC--maj-gen Alexander Golovko. exCommander ---Maj Gen Oleg Ostapenko. Ex-CINC-- POPOVKIN, Vladimir, Lt-Gen (Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 11 March 04).

The Primary tasks of the Space Troops are:

missile attacks warning;
ABM defence;
creation, deployment, maintenance and control of the orbital satellites group.

The ABM facilities included 3 AD army and warning systems (PRN).

Staff and Command Point- Moscow

RCP- Znamenka-1, #14272, Tambovskaya obl.
RCP Balabanovo-1, Borovskiy region(district), Kaluzhskaya obl.

1 State test cosmodrome Plesetsk ( earlier 3 UAP, since September 1963 3 NIIP MOD )
2 State test cosmodromes Svobodnyy with IP-1, IP-2, IP-6
5 State test cosmodromes Baikonur (earlier 5 NIIP MOD, # 11284 since 1955) with IP-3, IP-5

3 missile-space defense armies -Solnechnogorsk, three divs, 14 separate radiotech formations of the different purposes:
1 warning div

Staff and Command Point - Solnechnogorsk

Warning systems represents 8 separate radiotechnical points (ORTU): five located outside the territory of Russia.
Radiotechnical point comprises one or several RLS, information is transferred to central command point in Solnechnogorsk.
Information from satellites in real-time is transferred to point of control in Serpuhov-15 (the village Kurilovo, Kaluzhskoy area). Then, processed information is transferred to command point of the Space Troops armies in Solnechnogorsk.

East CP SPRN- Komsomolsk
West CP SPRN- Serpuhov-15, #22251 (Kurilovo, 35 km north-west Serpuhov, Zhukovskiy region, Kaluzhskoy distr.)- receiving
information from space sat group that allows night and day control over the territory of USA in realtime.
System includes the antenna complex and information point for handling and storage data.
The Point of management is solely intended for warning about missile launches. On monitor missile is fixed by infrared radiation of the engine. The light strip grows on screen several minutes after start, till detachment of the third step.
During this time system calculates and issues exact information: type of the missile, programmed flight trajectory and target.

ORTU RO-1 Olenegorsk- RLS Dnepr/Daugava
ORTU RO-5 Beregovo,(Mukachevo ,Ukraine)- RLS Dnepr
ORTU RO-4 Nikolaev,(Sevastopol ,Ukraine)- RLS Dnepr
ORTU OS-2 Balhash (Kazakhstan)- RLS Dnepr+ Dnestr-M(SKKP)
ORTU OS-1 Mishelevka- RLS Dnepr +Dnestr-M(SKKP)
ORTU RO-30 Pechora- RLS Dariyal
ORTU RO-7 Gabala (Azerbaijan)- RLS Dariyal
ORTU Gancevichi (Belorussia)- RLS Volga

ORTU Komsomolsk- RLS Duga-2
In consequence of low efficiency of two-jump(?) over-the horizont radiolocation in the second half of 1980-s arised question on practical use of "Duga-2". In the beginning of 1990-s Duga-2 had the fire in consequence of which station was stopped. Financing for the recovering was winnowed slowly and only in November 2000 were reported that recovering was practically completed.

ORTU- Sofrino -RLS-DON-2N

9 division of antimissile defence- Sofrino-1, Barabanovo

The exploitation of the system of the antimissile defence A-135 unrolled around Moscow, provides division included in missile-defense army (RKO).
Command-measuring point of the system combined with RLS DON-2N is located in Sofrino Moscow area.
System includes RLS DON-2N, command-measuring point and ABM: 68 missiles 53T6 (Gazelle), intended for interception in atmosphere, and 32 missiles 51T6 (Gorgon), for the interception outside the atmosphere. Far interception missiles are located in mine launchers in positional regions around Moscow. (Sergiev Posad, Klin, Nudoli, Naro-Fominsk) eight launchers each.
Close interception missiles are located in five positional districts: 4x16 for defence of the Moscow and 1x4 for defence of RLS DON-2N. System was accepted in duty in 1995. Last launch tests were in October 2 2002 (51Т6) and November 2 1999 (53Т6).

Residing on combat duty since 1 December 1995, A-135 system is operated by 9 division of Space Troops. It includes multifunctional RLS 5Н20 DON-2N (Sofrino) and RLS DUNAY-3U (Chekhovo), as well as four mine launchers of the complex of distant interception missiles (51Т6) and close interception (53Т6), located near Sergieva Posad, Klin, Nudoli and Naro-Fominsk and counting 32 and 64 missiles respectively. The design of 51Т6 conducted by CB "Fakel" (Himki), 53Т6 -- CB "Novator" (Ekaterinburg).

Command-computing point 5К80- Sofrino (Sofrino-1, Krasnoarmeysk, Pushkin)- Command-measuring point, combined with RLS-DON-2N- (ORTU PRO+SKPP+SPRN)- Pill Box

Launch position- Novopetrovskaya (Nudoli)- 51Т6
Launch position- Klin-Klin-9,(85 km from Klin)- 51Т6
Launch position- Kolodkino (Naro-Fominsk)- 51Т6
Launch position Sergiev Posad (Zagorsk)- 51Т6
Launch position Skhodnya- 53Т6
Launch position- Turakovo (Alexander)- 53Т6
Launch position- Korolev- 53Т6
Launch position- Lytkarino- 53Т6
Launch position- Vnukovo- 53Т6
ORTU (separate radiotechnical element- Chekhov (Chehov-7, Stremilovo, Cherneckoe, Podolisk-20)- RLS DUNAY-3U - Cat House
ORTU- Kubinka (Akulovo) RLS DUNAY-3M- Dog House

45 division for supervision of the outer space Noginsk-9, Stromyni

The main component used for finding artificial satellites on low orbits and determination parameters of their orbits, are RLS systems of the early warning.

Command Point, associated with sources and consumers of information CP- Noginskiy region(district)

Optometrist-electronic complex Okno ("Window") composition of four search stations, two stations of the accompaniment and command-computing point of target
7680- Nurek (Tadzhikistan)- Optometrist-electronic complex "Okno"

"Krona" composition: RLS dm range, RLS sm range and command-computing point - Zelenchukskaya (Cherkessk)- Lazer location complex "Krona"

"Moment" radiotechnical complex of supervision of radiating space objects in Podmoskovie- since 2003

"Krona-N" radar complex for search of low orbit objects in FAR EAST (in process of commissioning)- Nakhodka (Pacific)

In composition of Command-Control Point the following interacting information system facilities are included:

radar stations "Dnepr" (Murmansk, Irkutsk - RF, Mukachevo, Sevastopol - an Ukraine, Gulishad - Kazakhstan);
radar stations "Dariyal" (Pechora - RF, Mingechaur - Azerbaijan);
radar station "Volga" (Baranovichi - Republic Belarus);
radar stations "DUNAY-3U" (Podmoskovie);
multifunctional RLS ABM defense "DON-2N" (Podmoskovie);
RLS "Azov" (20 ONIC MOD RF, Kamchatka);
radio and radio intelligence facilities;
optometrist-electronic stations "Sazhen'" and "Sazhen'-T" (in process of the debugging the interaction).

In composition of the enlisted system facilities KKP enters also the overland(land-mobile) network of the optical facilities (NSOS), located in RF, Kazakhstan and Ukraine.

Main test centre of the test and control of space facilities (GICIU KS)- Golicino-2 (Krasnoznamensk, 43 km Minskogo hiway-
153 GICIU- Includes: test centres, command-measuring complexes (11 OKIK- function- gathering;dues) -information on
satellites, includes(switches on;lists)- command point, station Aurora , complex of satellite communication Svyaznik , point of receiving of the system time(PPSEV)) and measuring point.

Centre command-measuring complex- Maloyaroslavec
Separate test centre- Mouth-Kamchatsk
4 OKIK- Eniseysk
6 OKIK- Vulkannyy (Kamchatka)
7 OKIK- Shahs(Barnaul)
9 OKIK- Krasnoe Selo
12 OKIK- Kolpashevo
13 OKIK- Nizhnie Tal'cy (Ulan-Ude)
14 OKIK- SCHelkovo-7
15 OKIK- Galenki (Ussuriysk)
17 OKIK- Solnechnyy (Komsomolsk)
18 OKIK- Vorkuta
OKIK - Armavir
IP-1- Plesetsk
IP-2- Plesetsk
IP-3- Nariyan-Mar
IP-5- Mirnyy(Pacific)

Military Engineering-Space Krasnoznamennyy university (earlier KVVIA im. A.F. Mozhayskogo)- SAINT PETERSBURG
Branch VIKKU- Pushkin-9 Leningrad dustr. (earlier school )

Military Institute of Radioelectronics (VIRE)- Kubinka-2

28 arsenal- Karian-Stroganov

"Popovkin was born in Dushanbe 25 September 1957. He is a graduate of the Mozhayskiy Military Space Academy, the Dzerzhinskiy Military Academy, and General Staff Military Academy courses. He served in engineer and command posts at Baykonur Cosmodrome, in the directorate of the commander of the Military Space Forces, and in the General Staff's Main Directorate for Operations. In June 2001 he was appointed chief of staff of the Space Troops by edict of President Vladimir Putin. He is a lieutenant general" ((Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 11 March 04).

Previous CINC was PERMINOV, Anatoliy, Col-Gen (RIA Novosti, 28 Mar 01).

Space Troops STAFF

Chief of Staff (Space Troops First Deputy Commander) --- ?

[Previous Chief of Staff was POPOVKIN, Vladimir, Lt-Gen ((Kommersant, 16 Jun 01; Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, 22 Jun 01; noted as a Lt-Gen, ITAR-TASS, 10 Jan 03).)

["… Military Space Forces were separated from other forces organizationally by order of the Minister of Defense on 10 August 1992." (Armeyskiy Sbornik No 2, Aug 94 (signed to press 29 Jul 94) pp 9- 13). "The Missile and Space Troops themselves include the Missile, Space, and Air Attack Early Warning Troops [Voyska Preduprezhdeniya o Raketno- Kosmicheskom Vozdushnom Napadenii]. The second element [of the Missile and Space Troops] was the system of missile and space defense and the space surveillance system ["sistema kontrolya kosmicheskogo prostranstva"] (Moscow Mayak Radio Network in Russian 1930 GMT 7 Dec 93). There was an interim period of roughly 6 months between Ivanov’s retirement and Grin’s appointment during which time the post of commander was left vacant. One source suggests that this was due to a debate within the Ministry of Defense as to whether or not to preserve the Space Forces during the period of reductions. Grin himself was groomed by Ivanov and had the approval of Rodionov. (Kommersant-Daily 14 Mar 97 p 3).] The Military-Space Forces were merged into the RVSN during the fall of 1997. and were to be removed from the RVSN as of the end of January 2001 and renamed the "Space Troops" (Rossiyskaya Gazeta 27 Jan 01 P 2). The latter move did not occur until March.. Their status as an independent Combat arm was established as of the appointment of Perminov as Commander, 28 March 2001.]
"1. Before 1 June 2001 the Russian Federation branch of service the Strategic Missile Troops is to be transformed into the Russian Federation branches of service the Strategic Missile Troops and the Space Troops; " Presidential Edict No. 337s
Deputy Commander (Missile-Space Defense (RKO) --- SHISHKIN, Anatoliy Semyenovich, Lt-Gen (Kommersant, 16 Jun 01; noted as a Lt-Gen, Voyennyye Znaniya, 1 Oct 02).

[SHISHKIN: "All of his service has been tied to the RKO troops where he managed to command a missile attack warning division, and then was the RKO Chief of Staff" (Kommersant, 16 Jun 01). "Anatoliy Semyenovich Shishkin was born on 11 November 1952, in the village Abramovka, Voronezh Oblast. In 1973, he graduated from the Zhitomirsk Higher Surface-to-Air Missile Command School and served in the positions of company commander, engineer, senior section engineer - shift supervisor of the radio-technical center transceiver radio-technical post. After graduating from the PVO Military Command Academy in 1982, he became unit deputy chief of staff for combat command and control, subunit commander, and unit commander. In 1992, he graduated from the Russian Federation Armed Forces General Staff Military Academy and was appointed combined formation deputy chief of staff for combat command and control. He has served in regions with severe climatic conditions - in Kazakhstan, Murmansk, and the Komi ASSR. In the future he would hold positions of formation commander, chief of staff - deputy commander of Missile and Space Defense [RKO], and chief of staff of the RKO RVSN [Strategic Missile Troops]. In 1999, he became chief of the RKO RVSN Troops Directorate. By Russian Federation Presidential Decree of 9 July 2001, he was appointed Deputy Space Troops Commander" (Voyennyye Znaniya, 1 Oct 02).]
Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyanov has approved the composition of the Russian section of the Russian- Azerbaijani commission that is tasked to determine chattels of the Gabala radar station that are to become property of the Russian Federation. The commission includes officials of the Defense Ministry, Property Ministry, Interior Ministry and interested organizations, an official of the government information department told Interfax- Military News Agency on Monday. Deputy Commander of the Russian Space Troops Lieutenant General Anatoly Shishkin is appointed chairman of the commission on behalf of Russia. (Agentstvo Voyennykh Novostey 7 Oct 02).
Deputy Commander (Armaments) --- GROMOV, Oleg, Maj-Gen (Kommersant, 16 Jun 01; Interfax, 2 Oct 02).

Deputy Commander (Educational Work) --- KHOMENKO, Ivan, Lt-Gen (Kommersant, 16 Jun 01; Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 3 Mar 04).

Deputy Commander (Rear Services) --- PARNYSHKOV, Nikolay, Col (Kommersant, 16 Jun 01).

STAFF [Space Troops]
Chief of Staff (Space Troops First Deputy Commander) --- POPOVKIN, Vladimir, Maj-Gen ((Kommersant, 16 Jun 01; noted as a Lt-Gen, Krasnaya Zvezda, 6 Nov 02).

["Prior to his coming to the KV, POPOVKIN served in the Main Operations Directorate of the General Staff" (Kommersant, 16 Jun 01).]
Deputy Chief of Staff --- DERKACH, Vladimir, Maj-Gen (Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, 22 Jun 01).
Chief of Cadre Directorate -- Colonel Sergey Panasyuk (Agentstvo Voyennykh Novostey, 27 Jan 03).

3rd Separate Missile-Space Defense Army [Top of page]
Commander --- KURUSHKIN, Sergey, Lieutenant-General (Agentstvo Voyennykh Novostey, 19 Nov 02).

1st Missile Attack Warning Division [3rd Sep VKO Army]
· Includes "Volga" Missile Attacking Warning System (SPRN) site which went on alert duty in the forests near the Belarusian village of Gantsevichi, in 2003 (Rossiyskaya Gazeta, 23 Oct 03).
· Includes seven individual technical hubs in the Russian Missile Attacking Warning System (Rossiyskaya Gazeta, 23 Oct 03).
9th Space Forces Missile Defense Division [Top of page]
[In Sofrino, Moscow Oblast (, 16 Jan 03). Don-2N multifunctional radar station, which forms the basis of Moscow's A-135 missile defense system (Kommersant, 16 Jan 03).]
Armaments [Top of page]
Chief --- GROMOV, Oleg, Maj-Gen (Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, 22 Jun 01; Interfax, 2 Oct 02).

Baykonur Cosmodrome [Military-Space Forces] [Space Troops Staff]
[To be transferred to the RF Space Agency, (Krasnaya Zvezda in Russian 28 Oct 98 p 1).]
[Following the breakup of the USSR joint use of the Cosmodrome was arranged by Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan. The use of land, and use and ownership of movable property was assigned to the Strategic Forces of the CIS. --- Coordination of scientific-production activity in the preparation and implementation of space programs, and also the use of space technologies in support of science and the national economy, was to be done by the Republic of Kazakhstan Space Research Agency and the Russian Space Agency. (Rossiyskiye Vesti No 18, 12 Jun 92 p 4).]
[In July 1993 Defense Minister Grachev asserted Russian ownership and declared unilaterally that: "The Baykonur space launching grounds is a Russian military facility." (ITAR-TASS 1255 GMT 2 Jul 93).]
[On 28 March 1994 Russia and Kazakhstan signed an agreement on "the Basic Principles and Conditions Governing the Use of the 'Baykonur' Space Center," providing for the transfer and use of the facilities by the Russian Space Agency, for which lease Russia would pay $115 million in 1994. Utilities and materiel will be provided by the RF MoD. (Rossiyskaya Gazeta 7 Sep 94 First Edition p 4).]
Chief --- BARANOV, Leonid, Lt-Gen (RIA Novosti, 2 Nov 01).

[Previous Chiefs were:

SHUMILIN, Aleksey, Lt-Gen, (Izvestiya 7 Jul 93 p 5). (Moscow Mayak Radio Network in Russian 1930 GMT 1 Nov 94). (Krasnaya Zvezda 23 Feb 96 p 3).]
Lt-Gen Arty Aleksey Ivanovich NESTERENKO (1955-1958);
Gen Konstantin Vasilyevich GERCHIK (1958-1961);
Gen Aleksandr Grigor’yevich ZAKAROV (1961-1965);
Gen Aleksandr Aleksandrovich KURUSHIN (1965-1973);
Gen Valentin Illarionovich FADEYEV (1975-1983);
Gen Yuriy Nikolayevich SERGUNIN (1978-1983);
Gen Yuriy Averkovich ZHUKOV (1983-1989). (Krasnaya Zvezda 18 Sep 90 First Edition p 2);
Lt-Gen Aleksey Leontyevich KRYZHKO (1991-1992). (Krasnaya Zvezda 14 Mar 91 First Edition p 4.) (Krasnaya Zvezda 4 Mar 92 1st Ed p 1).]

Launch Center (Baykonur) [Baykonur]
Chief --- BARANOV, Leonid, Lt-Gen (Almaty Kazakh Commercial TV, 1 May 00). (Krasnaya Zvezda 27 Jan 01).

Previous Chief was CHIFIN, Dmitriy Timofeyevich, , (Krasnaya Zvezda 8 Dec 98 p 2). BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION, CHIFIN: born and grew up in Semipalatinsk. Missile Academy imeni F. E. Dzerzhinskiy, first as a cadet, then as an officer. Since then, since 1977, assigned to Baykonur. Began as a section engineer and now is commander of a combat crew—in Ground Troops terminology -- a regimental commander. (Krasnaya Zvezda 8 Dec 98 p 2).]
Central Scientific Research Institute for Space Systems [Space Troops Staff]
(Krasnaya Zvezda 6 Aug 94 p 3).
Combat Training
Chief --- SUBBOTIN, Aleksandr, Col (Krasnaya Zvezda, 21 Nov 03; Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 3 Mar 04).

Cosmonaut Training, Russian State Scientific-Research Test Center for, imeni Yu. A. Gagarin [Space Troops Staff]
[Previously referred to as Cosmonaut Training Center imeni Yu.A. Gagarin, Pilot-Cosmonaut, the Center was renamed in 1995 in recognition of the joint interest of both the Ministry of Defense and the Russian Space Agency (Krasnaya Zvezda 10 Jun 95 p 1).]
Head --- KLIMUK, Petr, Lt-Gen (ITAR-TASS 1255 GMT 2 Jul 93). Appointed Sept. 1991. (Krasnaya Zvezda 10 Jun 95 p 1).

· [BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION, KLIMUK: born 10 July 1942 in Komarovka village. Chernigov Higher Aviation School (1964), Gagarin Air Force Academy (1977), Lenin Military-Political Academy (1982). 1965-1978 cosmonaut. Pilot-cosmonaut 1st Class. Space Flights in 1973, 1975, 1978. Twice Hero of Soviet Union. (Voyeninform Military News Bulletin No 3, Mar 94 p 3/1).]

Educational Institutions [Space Troops Staff]
Military Space Academy imeni A.F. Mozhayskiy
Address: 197082, St. Petersburg, Zhdanovskaya Naberezhnaya, 13, Tel. 235-88-74, 235-87-23, 235-88-43. Also referred to as the Military Engineering and Space Academy, (Krasnaya Zvezda 4 Feb 95 p 6). (Krasnaya Zvezda 20 Jan 96 p 6).
[Founded 1941 on basis of the Leningrad Civil Aviation Engineering Institute. 5-year training program. (MOLODEZH ESTONII 22 Mar 91 p 3.)]
Chief --- KOVALEV, Aleksandr Pavlovich (Krasnaya Zvezda, 15 Jan 02).
Deputy chief for Training and Scientific Work --- KALININ, Vladimir Nikolayevich, Maj-Gen

Peter the Great Military Academy [Affiliate of Military Space Academy]
located in the town of Pushkin, Leningrad Rayon (ITAR-TASS, 10 Jan 03).
Space Forces' Moscow Military Institute of Electronics
located in Kubinka, Moscow region (ITAR-TASS, 10 Jan 03).
Chief --- Derkach, Vladimir, Major-General (Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 3 Mar 04).

Military Air Defense University
In Tver, Central Russia. (ITAR-TASS, 10 Jan 03).
Military-Space Cadet Corps
(Krasnaya Zvezda, 6 Dec 03 (RF Defense Minister Order No 337 of 22 September 2003, Moscow)).
Indoctrination Work [Space Troops Staff]
Chief (Space Troops Deputy Commander) --- KHOMENKO, Ivan, Lt-Gen (Kommersant, 16 Jun 01; Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, 22 Jun 01).

Golitsyno-2: German Titov Main Experimental Center for the Testing and Use of Space Equipment [Space Troops Staff]
(Главный испытательный центр испытаний и применения космических средств (ГИЦИП КС) им. Германа Титова).

["---Directing and testing all orbital spacecraft--- including, those designed for the national economy, science, and military, and excluding only those relating to PVO Troops, Intelligence, and the 'Mir' space station---" (Moscow IZVESTIYA 23 Feb 91 Union Edition p 1.)]
[Control and telemetry complexes scattered across Russia, as well as control and telemetry complex ships. (Krasnaya Zvezda 6 Aug 94 p 3).]
Chief --- KOLESNIKOV, Nikolay, Maj-Gen (Krasnaya Zvezda, 2 Feb 02).

[Biographical Information, Kolesknikov: "родился в 1951 году. Окончил Ставропольское высшее военно-инженерное училище связи, Военный институт имени А.Ф. Можайского, Военные академии имени Ф.Э. Дзержинского и Генерального штаба Вооруженных Сил РФ. До назначения начальником ГИЦИП КС служил начальником штаба этого центра" (Krasnaya Zvezda, 2 Feb 02).]
· [Previous Chief was ZAPADINSKIY, Anatoliy Borisovich, Lt-Gen, (Interfax 1652 GMT 24 Aug 94); (Russian Public Television 0518 GMT 21 Jan 99). BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION, ZAPADINSKY: born in 1947. Father was an army officer. Kharkov Military Engineering School (1969). Served in Priozyorsk, Kazakhstan as chief of a telemetering station. Dzerzhinskiy Military Academy (1984). Commanded a regiment, a brigade and a division. General Staff Academy (1994). Appointed to command the Spacecraft Test and Control Center of the Russian Space Forces. (Interfax 1652 GMT 24 Aug 94). Noted as a Maj-Gen, (Krasnaya Zvezda 17 Nov 94 p 2). Noted as a Lt-Gen, (Krasnaya Zvezda 18 Nov 95 p 1).]

Main Space Command (Center?) [Space Troops Staff]
(Located near Moscow. Noted in IZVESTIYA 12 Dec 90 Union Ed p 6.)
Military Research Committee (of the Space Troops)
Chairman --- Vladimir Kuznetsov (Agentstvo Voyennykh Novostey 29 Oct 02).

Okno Optical-Electronic Complex
[Space monitoring facility. Located in Tajikistan (Channel One TV, 23 Oct 03).]
Operations Directorate
Chief --- STARUKHIN, Viktor, Maj-Gen (Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, 22 Jun 01; Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 31 Mar 04).

Plesetsk Cosmodrome
[By decree of 11 Nov 1994 Plesetsk was named the "Russian Federation Ministry of Defense 1st State Experimental Spaceport" and made part of the Military/Space Forces. (Krasnaya Zvezda 15 Nov 94 p 1). In Reforms 1997-1997 combined with Range 53 (Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, Oct 30 - Nov 5 98).]
Chief -- BASHLAKOV, Anatoliy, Maj-Gen (Krasnaya Zvezda, 4 Feb 03; Agentstvo Voyennykh Novostey, 2 Apr 03).

[Bashlakov: "born in the Mashkovo village in the Bryansk region on May 11, 1957. He graduated from the Riga Higher Military Political College and the missile department of the Military Political Academy. He served in units of the Strategic Missile Forces, holding various positions, among them commander of a missile regiment and deputy commander of a missile division. After graduating from the General Staff Academy in 2000, Bashlakov was appointed chief-of-staff and first deputy chief of the Plesetsk cosmodrome. He was promoted to his current position from that post" (Agentstvo Voyennykh Novostey, 2 Apr 03).]
[Previous Chief was KOVALENKO, Gennadiy, Lt-Gen (Krasnaya Zvezda, 31 May 01; Armeyskiy Sbornik, Jul 02): "Gennadiy Nikolayevich Kovalenko was born on 6 June 1951 in Shovgenskiy Rayon in the Adygey AO. In 1973 he graduated from the Chief Marshal of Artillery M.I. Nedelin Rostov Higher Military Command-Engineering School. He served in the RVSN [Strategic Missile Troops] in positions from group engineer to chief of staff-deputy commander of a missile regiment. In 1985 he graduated from the Command Faculty of the F.E. Dzerzhinskiy Military Academy and was appointed commander of a missile regiment. From 1985 to 1992 he was commander of a missile regiment, chief of staff-deputy commander of a missile division. After graduating from the Military Academy of the RF Armed Forces General Staff in 1992, he was appointed commander of a missile division. In 1999 he became chief of the Plesetsk State Experimental Cosmodrome. He has been awarded the order 'For Military Service', and Order of Honor." (Armeyskiy Sbornik, Jul 02).]
Outer Space Monitoring System
[SKKP -- Sistema kontrolya kosmicheskogo prostranstva.]
[Was part of PVO. Now likely to be subordinate to Military-Space Forces. Subordination hinted at, but not explicitly stated in source. (Krasnaya Zvezda 8 Sep 90 1st ed p 4.)]
[IVANOV: "Three of our command-measurement complexes-- Yevpatoriya, Simferopol, and Dunayevtsy--have been transferred to the jurisdiction of Ukraine." (Moscow ARGUMENTY I FAKTY in Russian No 16, Apr 93 p 5).
Nurek Space Monitoring Center (Krasnaya Zvezda 3 Oct 92 p 2).
Rear Services
Deputy Commander (Rear Services) --- PARNYSHKOV, Nikolay, Col (Kommersant, 16 Jun 01).

(Solnechnogorsk) Missile-Space Defense Army
Semipalatinsk Test Range
Chief --- KONOVALENKO, Yuriy, Lt-Gen (Komsomol’skaya Pravda 23 Dec 93 p 1).
Deputy Chief for Scientific Work -- SAFONOV, Fedor, Maj-Gen (ITAR-TASS 0915 GMT 4 Nov 93). (KAZAKHSTANSKSYS PRAVDA 14 Feb 95 p 3).

Svobodniy Cosmodrome
[Officially named a 'Cosmodrome' 1 March 1996 (Krasnaya Zvezda 5 Mar 96 p 1). Formerly SVOBODNIY-18 one-time RVSN missile base in Amur Oblast', near Blagoveshchensk.] Main Center for Testing and Application of Space Technologies [Svobodniy Cosmodrome]
Chief --- VENEDIKTOV, Aleksandr, Maj-Gen (ITAR-TASS 0825 GMT 18 Mar 94).

Separate Special-Purpose Missile Warning Army
[Created on the basis of the 3rd Separate Army, the Missile Defense Corps and the Space Monitoring Division, (Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye (Electronic Version) in Russian No 41, Oct 30 - Nov 5 1998).]
Chief of Staff of an UI Formation --- YUNEV, Vladimir Mikhaylovich, Maj-Gen, (Krasnaya Zvezda 26 Feb 99).

[BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION, YUENV: "born in Maritime Kray. He was educated in the Ussuri Suvorov School; completed Zhitomir Higher Command School of Air Defense Electronics, which was the forge of Missile-Space Defense specialists; and later completed the Air Defense Academy's command faculty. He has served in the Army for around 30 years…" (Krasnaya Zvezda 26 Feb 99).]
Transport, Military T. Communications Service (VOSO) [Space Troops]
Head --- Levchuk, Vladimir, Colonel (Agentstvo Voyennykh Novostey 1 Aug 01).

Warning, Missile Attack Warning System (Система предупреждения о ракетном нападений.) [VKS]
[Subordinated to Strategic Missile Troops, October 1997 (Itar-Tass 1219 GMT 14 Oct 97).]
[N.B. While a 1990 source stated that this agency was subordinate to the Air Defense Troops, (Krasnaya Zvezda 27 Sep 90 1st ed p 2.), subsequent references have indicated that this function is now part of Aerospace Defense Forces, (Moscow Mayak Radio Network in Russian 1930 GMT 7 Dec 93).]
Deputy Commander --- KARTASHOV, Nikolay, Lt-Gen (Itar-Tass 1219 GMT 14 Oct 97).

Gabala (Azerbaijan) Missile Attack Warning Station [VKS]
(Moscow Radiostantsiya Ekho Moskvy in Russian 1500 GMT 11 Jun 94). (Baku ZERKALO in Russian 22 Apr 95 p 1).
(Radar Sites) [Missile Attack Warning System] [VKS]
["…over-the-horizon radars stationed in Pechora, Murmansk, (Latvia), Mukachevo and Sevastopol (Ukraine), Mingechaur (Azerbaijan), near Balkhash (Kazakhstan), and Irkutsk." (IZVESTIYA 10 Mar 95 p 2).
["…Now Russia is left with three over-the-horizon radar stations -- in Murmansk, Pechora, and Irkutsk." (RABOCHAYA TRIBUNA 8 Apr 95 p 4).]
[The Skrunda facility was dismantled (ITAR-TASS 1255 GMT 3 Dec 98).]
Volga Radar Station (At Baranovichi, Belarus)
[Placed in operation 1 October 2003 (Channel One TV, 2 Oct 03).]
Serpukhov-15 (Satellite Communications "Object")
Located in Kaluga Oblast. Seriously damaged by a fire on 10 May 01 (Pravda, 17 May 01).
UI Missile-Space Defense Army
(объединения ракетно-космической обороны (РКО))
Commander --- KURUSHKIN, Sergey, Maj-Gen (Krasnaya Zvezda, 23 Oct 01; Agentstvo Voyennykh Novostey, 20 Mar 02).



Voronezh DM (RSVZG)



Space Troops C3 visited by Pres. Putin and French Pres. J. Chirac. ©

Space Troops ©





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