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Database / armed forces  / air space defence troops


 [cross-references: • Armaments of Russian Strategic Military Forces
 [cross-references: • Main Armaments of Russian Military Forces]
 [cross-references: • Main Armaments of Russian Air Force and Air Space Defence]
 [cross-references: • Main Armaments of Ground Forces]
 [cross-references: • State of the Russian Navy

Table 1. MoD commands and military deployments


  Air Space Defence.

VKO Troops Command Moscow KV

  Address: 119160, Moscow, Profsoyuznaya, 84/32. alt comd centers: # 14272 Znamenka-1 (Tambov), Balabanovo-1 (Kaluga). 11.2004 successfully launched modernizated A-135 ABM in Kazakhstan. 06.2004 celebrated its 3rd anniversary. 2004: monitored 11 launches, 28 sats; military Orbital sat group incl 60 sats; launched 3 ICBMs, 3 military sats, 5 civil sats. Put in service Okno and Moment complexes, continius works on Angara, Souz-2, Strela complexes. 02.2006 inspected by MoD delegation. 03.2006 CINC G. Popovkin visited USA. 04.2006 visited by US SC CINC delegation. 2006: controlled 4850 space objects (9150 in database). 12.2006 successfully launched A-135(?) ABM from Sary-Shagan. 03.2007 comd.staff trainings (2500 pers.) 05.2007 successfully launched RS-24 mobile ICBM. 2007: detected 20 launches of ICBMs, managed 115 sats, took in control 63 sats. 5000 space objects monitored; launched 25 sats, 3 ICBM, 210000 comms sessions. 12.2008: ST upgrading communication lines to optical to enable modern functioning of GLONASS system. Planned for 2009-2010. 2009: serve 5000 women (70 lt, 130 cpt, 70 maj, 30 lt col), 15000 civil.

1 GIK Plesetsk KV

  1st State Test Red Banner Order Labour Red Banner Cosmodrom. Address: Arkhangels distr, Mirnyy. since 1963 MoD. 01.2004 inspected by CINC G. Popovkin and procurator's commission. 04.2006 visited by US SC CINC delegation. 1994-2006: 35 ICBM launches, 90 space launches (150 sats). 7.06.2007 successfully launched SOYUZ-U with Kosmos-2427 sat. 2007 commander: Lt Gen Anatoly Bashlakov. 03.07.2007 successfully launched Kosmos-3M with SAR-Lupe (Germany) sat. 2007: 7 civil launches, 2 ICBM launches. 2007 commander: Maj Gen Oleg Ostapenko. 1963-2008: launched 40% of all world launches, 1556 space missiles, 1985 sats, 13 ICBM types tested. 07.2008 launched Kosmos-3M with SAR-Lupe, Kosmos-2441. 11.2009 visited bu Head of Security Council Patrushev.

IP-8 Norilsk KV

  unit # 40919. 8 Scientific Measuring Point. Address: Krasnoyarsk distr, Norilsk. measr pt

16 OIICh Mirnyy KV

  unit # 14056. 16 Detached Engineering Testing Command. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

17 OIICh Mirnyy KV

  unit # 63551. 17 Detached Engineering Testing Command. Address: Arkhangelsk distr., Myrnyy.

2 OIICh Mirnyy KV

  unit # 30107. 2 Detached Engineering Testing Command. Address: Arkhanglesk distr, Myrnyy.

229 OIICh Mirnyy KV

  unit # 14003. 229 Detached Engineering Testing Command. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

29 OIICh Mirnyy KV

  unit # 13973. 29 Detached Engineering Testing Command. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

8 OIICh Mirnyy KV

  unit # 01349. 8 Detached Engineering Testing Command. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

83 OIICh Mirnyy KV

  unit # 25922. 83 Detached Engineering Testing Command. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

IKK Mirnyy KV

  unit # 14276. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

37 OBATO Mirnyy KV

  unit # 34185. 37 Detached battalion of Aerodrom Technical Service. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

478 OTZhDB Mirnyy KV

  unit # 42643. 478th Detached Technical Railway battalion. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

OEB Mirnyy KV

  unit # 57334. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

201 TsIPKS Mirnyy KV

  unit # 75106. 201 Center of Testing and Invention of Space Tools. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

883 TsIPKS Mirnyy KV

  unit # 75117. 833 Center of Testing and Invention of Space Tools. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

3 IU Mirnyy KV

  unit # 07378. 3 research department. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

205 TsIPKS Mirnyy KV

  unit # 85907. 205 research center. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

260 TsIPKS Mirnyy KV

  unit # 85487. 260 research center. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

98 US Mirnyy KV

  unit # 32175. 98 Communications Point. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

40 OBO Mirnyy KV

  unit # 42651. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

75 OETB Mirnyy KV

  unit # 42670. 75 Detached technical battalion. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

AB Mirnyy KV

  unit # 47077. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

549 VG Mirnyy KV

  unit # 42680. 549 Military Hospital. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

18 VEO Mirnyy KV

  unit # 01080. 18 veterenary-epidemiology platoom. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

FPS Mirnyy KV

  unit # 78112. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Mirnyy.

GTs PRN Solnechnogorsk KV

  unit # 26302. Main Center of Warning on Missiles Attack. Address: 141500, Moscow distr, Solnechnogorsk. ex 1st msl attack warning div (2009). 05.2011 visited by French military delegation.

Eastern KP SPRN Komsomolsk KV

  unit # 20117. Eastern KP SPRN. Address: 682740, Komsomolsk. In fact Komsomolsk, Pivan-1.

57 ORTU RO-1 Olenegorsk KV

  unit # 16605. OrtU RO-1 detached Radio-Technical node. Address: Murmansk distr, Olenegorsk. Dnepr/Daugava
Total: 1 Hen House (Dnepr) 

49 ORTU OS-2 Balkhash (Kazahstan) KV

  unit # 16601. OrtU OS-2 detached Radio-Technical node. Address: 141500, Moscow distr, Solnechnogorsk. In fact, Kazakhstan, Gulshad. Dnepr+Dnestr-M. 10.2007 visited by RVSN CINC. 2007 commander: col Viktor Timoshenko. 07.2009 inspected by ST CINC.
Total: 1 Hen House (Dnepr) 

46 ORTU Usole-Sibirskoe KV

  unit # 03908. OrtU detached Radio-Technical node. Address: 665470, Irkutsk distr, Usol'e-Sibirskoe. Voronezh-M RLSVZG. 05.2012 entered service. Covered area from Western USA to India.

378 ORTU RO-30 Pechora KV

  unit # 96876. OrtU RO-30 detached Radio-Technical node. Address: 169700, Pechora. Dar'yal
Total:  Pechora LPAR (Daryal) 

474 ORTU Gantsevichi (Belorus) KV

  unit # 03522. 474 OrtU detached Radio-Technical node. Address: Belorus, Baranovichi, Gantsevichi. Volga. 01.2008 inspected by Space Troops staff. 07.2009 inspected by ST CINC.

ORTU Komsomolsk KV

  OrtU detached Radio-Technical node. Duga-2. 2002 repaired after fire.

ORTU Sofrino KV

  OrtU detached Radio-Technical node. Don-2N. 05.2011 visited by Valday Forum delegation.

Satellite group KV

  UK-KS (Oko "Eye") system: Kosmos-2379 (24 dgr west lat stabil, geostat orbit, 24.08.2002, NORAD 26892), Kosmos-2388 (high-ellip orbit, 1.04.2002, NORAD 27409), Kosmos-2393 (high-ellip orbit, 24.12.2002, NORAD 27613)
Total:  Oko (US-KS) 

ORTU Nakhodka KV

  unit # 29982. Address: Primorie, Nakhodka.

ORTU( Its) Pionerskyy KV

  unit # 42988. Detached RadioTech Node. Address: Kaliningrad, Pionersky. Voronezh-DM. 2014 entered service.
Total: 1 RLS VZG Voronezh-DM/M 

514 KP SPRN Solnechnogorsk KV

  unit # 12556. 514 Command point. Address: Moscow reg, Solnechnogorsk.

487 US I PI Solnechnogorsk KV

  unit # 13626. 487 Communications Point Data Transfer. Address: Moscow reg, Solnechnogorsk.

916 ORTU Serpukhov KV

  unit # 03340. 916 Detached Radio-Technical Node. Address: Moscow reg, Serpukhov.

1383 ZKP SPRN Lukhovitsi KV

  unit # 17204. 1383 BMD Reserved C3 point. Address: Moscow reg, Lukhovitsi.

N ORTU Konyukhi KV

  Detached RadioTech Node. Address: Barnaul distr. Voronezh-DM. 2014 entered service.
Total:  RLS VZG Voronezh-DM/M 


  Detached RadioTech Node. Address: Orenburg distr. Voronezh-M. 2015 in construction
Total:  RLS VZG Voronezh-DM/M 

N ORTU Vorkuta KV

  Detached RadioTech Node. Address: Orenburg distr. Voronezh-VP. 2015 in construction
Total:  RLS VZG Voronezh-DM/M 


  Detached RadioTech Node. Address: Omsk distr. Voronezh-VP. Planned.
Total:  RLS VZG Voronezh-DM/M 

N ORTU Sevastopol KV

  Н Detached Radio Tech Node. Address: Sevastopol, Kazachya. Dnepr-M. ex joint Rus-UA ORTU. Moernization till 2016.

N ORTU Usolie-Sibirskoe KV

  Detached RadioTech Node. Address: Irkutsk distr. Voronezh-M. Combat duty.
Total: 1 RLS VZG Voronezh-DM/M 

N ORTU Olenegorsk KV

  Detached RadioTech Node. Address: Murmansk distr. Voronezh-VP. Planned.
Total:  RLS VZG Voronezh-DM/M 

N ORTU Pechora KV

  Detached RadioTech Node. Address: Komi republic. Voronezh-VP. Planned.
Total:  RLS VZG Voronezh-DM/M 

571 ORTU Lekhtussi KV

  unit # 73845. ORTU det Radio-Technical node. Address: Leningrad distr, Lekhtussi. Voronezh M (RLS VZG). Constructure started 2005. 2007 operational. 14.08.2007 visited by Pres. Putin. 25.12.2009 prepared to enter into service. 2012 entered service. Covers area from Maroc to Eastern US.
Total:  RLS VZG Voronezh-DM/M 

818 ORTU Armavir KV

  unit # 41003. 818 ORTU det Radio-Technical node. Voronezh DM (RLS VZG). It was reported that this radar began its first operations on 15 December 2006 and will enter service by the end of 2008. 04.2008 visited by ST CINC. 02.2009 put in service, operational. 05.2012 exercises VKO. Covers area from Southern Europe to North Africa.
Total:  RLS VZG Voronezh-DM/M 

590 OTRU Kovylkino KV

  590 Separate Radiotechnical Point. Address: Morovia, Kovylkino. 29Б6 Контейнер. 2013 постановка на опытно-боевое дежурство. 2013 командир: Андрей Ростовцев.

153 GITsIU KS Golitsino-2 (Krasnoznamensk) KV

  unit # 32103. 153 Main Test Order october Revolution Order Labour Red Banner Center (testing and management of space tools) named by G.S. Titov. Address: Moscow distr, Krasnoznamesk. test and management of space "tools". 07.2008 trainings of comd staff.

IP- Svobodnyy KV

  unit # 94077. Address: Amur distr, Svobodnyy. ex 2nd State Test Cosmodrom

48 OKIK Maloyaroslavets KV

  unit # 34122. 48 Detached Command-Research Complex. Address: Kaluga distr, Maloyaroslavets.

6 OKIK Vulkannyy KV

  unit # 14086. 6 Detached Command-Research Complex. Address: Kamchatka distr, Elisovo, Vulkannyy.

46 OKIK Eniseisk KV

  unit # 14058. 46 Detached Control Measuring Complex. Address: Krasnoyarsk distr, Eniseisk.

76 OKIK Krasnoe Selo KV

  unit # 14108. 76 Detached Control Measuring Complex. Address: St Petersburg, Krsnoe Selo.

13 OKIK Nizhnie Taltsi (Ulan-Ude) KV

  unit # 14129. 13 Detached Control Measuring Complex. Address: Buryatiya, Nizhnie Tal'tsy. CM complex

14 OKIK Schelkovo-7 KV

  unit # 26178. 14 Detached Control Measuring Complex. Address: Moscow distr, Schelkovo. CM complex

15 OKIK Galenki (Ussuryysk) KV

  unit # 14038. 15 Detached Control Measuring Complex. Address: Primorie distr, Galenki. CM complex

20 OKIK Solnechnyy (Komsomolsk) KV

  unit # 59946. 20 Detached Control Measuring Complex. Address: Khabarovsk reg, Komsomolsk, Solnechnyy. CM complex

18OKIK Vorkuta KV

  unit # 97692. 18 Detached Control Measuring Complex. Address: Komi, Vorkuta-4, Oktyabrskyy. CM complex

IP-3 Naryan-Mar KV

  unit # 12403. 3 Measuring Point. Address: Arkhangelsk distr, Nar'yan-Mar. measr pt

145 TsKKP Dubrovo KV

  unit # 28289. 145 Center of Space Control. Address: Moscow reg, Dubrovo.

794 TsUS Krasnoznamensk KV

  unit # 57337. 794 central Communications Point. Address: Moscow reg, Krasnoznamensk.

81 ETK Krasnoznamensk KV

  unit # 59947. 81 Operation-Technical Commandant's Office. Address: Moscow reg, Krasnoznamensk.

9 VShMS Krasnoznamensk KV

  unit # 15689. 9 Military School of Young Specialists. Address: Moscow reg, Krasnoznamensk.

1373 IP Krasnoznamensk KV

  unit # 73736. 1373 research center (information and telemetry management of space systems). Address: Moscow reg, Krasnoznamensk.

863 IP Krasnoznamensk KV

  unit # 57237. 863 research center (testing and management of navigation satellites). Address: Moscow reg, Krasnoznamensk.

17 OKIK Yakutsk KV

  unit # 77981. Address: Sakha, Yakutsk.

7 ONIP Шахи (Барнаул) KV

  unit # 85906. Address: Altai, Barnaul.

N OKIK Vitino KV

  N Detached Control Measuring Complex. Address: Crimea, Evpatoria. ex Soviet OKIK, Ukraine. Forming 2015

28 arsenal Karian-Stroganov KV

  unit # 14272. 28 arsenal. Address: Tambov distr, Znamenka.

UVNSK Krasnogorsk KV

  unit # 73570. Department of New Systems and Complexes. Address: 143400, Moscow reg, Krasnogorsk-5.

1786 TsBIZMT Tschelkovo KV

  unit # 74143. 1786 Central Base of Measuring Equipment. Address: Moscow reg, Tschelkovo.

54 US Moscow KV

  unit # 74129. 54 Communications Point. Address: Moscow.


  unit # 42099. Address: 119160, Moscow.

USiR Moscow KV

  unit # 58122. Address: Moscow.

32 IU Baikonur KV

  unit # 11284. 32 Testing Department. Address: Kazakhstan, Baikonur.

43 ONIS Kura (Kamchatka) KV

  unit # 25522. 43 Detached Scientific Reasearch Station. Address: 684440, Kamchatka, Klyuchi. 600 km north of Petropavlovsk. 2010 resubordinated from RVSN to Space Troops.

183 Uts Plesetsk KV

  unit # 08342. Training Center of RVSN. 1.08.2010 re-subordinated from RVSN to Space Troops

AD BMD Comd Moscow ASD


Op Strat Comd ASD Balashikha (Moscow) ASD

  unit # 64178. Order Lenin Operative Strategic Command ofAir Defence. Address: 143954, Moscow distr, Balashikha, Severnyy. 06.2006 ? Fighter rgt took part in "Shield of Union" joint Russian-Belorussian exercises. 07.2007 REGION-2007 comd.staff exercises. 2007: effectiveness increased by 23%, average mark 4.06. 04.2008 waiting for SU-34 till the end of 2008 in three rgts. Planned to be reformed into AF & AD Army in 2009. 09.2008 comd staff exercises "Stabilnost'-2008": took part >5000 pers, 30 ac, 70 flights, AD monitored 2000 targets. 2009: 16 AFA disbanded. 2011 probably disbanded

5 D PVO Petrovskoe (Stupino) ASD

  unit # 52096. 5 Division of Air Defence. Address: 142711, Moscow distr, Petrovskoe. ex 5 BR PVO, ex 1st AD corps, ex 86th AD div

549 ZRP Stupino ASD

  unit # 61991. 549 Air Defence Regiment. Address: 142015, Moscow distr, Kurilovo. 2008 commander: col Alexander Kalenik. 2009: 2 S-300PM. 2014 delivered S-400.
Total: 16 SA-20 GARGOYLE / S-300 /PMU/2/3  16 SA-21 GROWLER / S400 Triumph Long Range TABM/SAM  6 SA-22 Greyhound / 96K6 Pantsyr S-1 

629 ZRP Kablukovo ASD

  unit # 51857. 629 Air Defence Regiment. Address: 141133, Moscow distr, Kablukovo. 2009: 3 S-300PM
Total: 24 SA-20 GARGOYLE / S-300 /PMU/2/3 

606 ZRP Electrostal ASD

  unit # 61996. 606th Guard Air Defence Red Banner Regiment. Address: 144000, Moscow distr, Electrostal. 09.2008 tactical trainings, msl launches at Ashuluk. 2008 commander: col Valery Filippov. 2009: 2 S-400, 1 S-300PM. 2010: fully re-armed on S-400. 2010: delivered 10 Pantsir-S1.
Total: 16 SA-21 GROWLER / S400 Triumph Long Range TABM/SAM  6 SA-22 Greyhound / 96K6 Pantsyr S-1  8 SA-20 GARGOYLE / S-300 /PMU/2/3 

614 ZRP Pestovo ASD

  unit # 92574. 614th Guard Air Defence Red Banner Order Kutuzov Order Alexandr Nevsky Regiment. Address: 142040, Moscow distr, Pestovo. 2009: 3 S-300PM
Total: 24 SA-20 GARGOYLE / S-300 /PMU/2/3 

799 ZRP Chastsy ASD

  unit # 62843. 799 Air Defence Regiment. Address: 143061, Moscow distr, Chastsy-1. 2006 transferred from Dubki. S-300
Total: 32 SA-20 GARGOYLE / S-300 /PMU/2/3 

9 RTP Olkhovka ASD

  unit # 51858. 9 Radio-Technical Regiment. Address: Moscow distr, Stupino, Torbeevo. 2008 commander: col Yury Skripko

4 D PVO Dolgoprudnyy ASD

  unit # 52116. 4 Division of Air Defence. Address: 141700, Moscow distr, Dolgoprudnyy. ex 4 BR PVO, ex 88 AD div

584 ZRP Marino ASD

  unit # 62845. 584 Guard Air Defence Regiment. Address: 141500, Moscow distr, Mar'ino. 2009: 2 S-300PM
Total: 16 SA-20 GARGOYLE / S-300 /PMU/2/3 

210 ZRP Dubrovka ASD

  unit # 51890. 210 Air Defence Regiment. Address: 141800, Moscow distr, Dubrovka. 2009: 2 S-400, 1 S-300PM
Total: 16 SA-21 GROWLER / S400 Triumph Long Range TABM/SAM  6 SA-22 Greyhound / 96K6 Pantsyr S-1  8 SA-20 GARGOYLE / S-300 /PMU/2/3 

93 ZRP Funkovo ASD

  unit # 51916. 93 Guard Air Defence Regiment. Address: 143090, Moscow distr, Fun'kovo. 2009: 3 S-300PM. 2014 delivered S-400.
Total: 8 SA-20 GARGOYLE / S-300 /PMU/2/3  6 SA-22 Greyhound / 96K6 Pantsyr S-1  16 SA-21 GROWLER / S400 Triumph Long Range TABM/SAM 

612 ZRP Naro-Fominsk ASD

  unit # 92925. 612 Air Defence Regiment. Address: 143300, Moscow distr, Naro-Fominsk, Glagolevo. 2 S-300
Total: 24 SA-20 GARGOYLE / S-300 /PMU/2/3 

722 ZRP Klin ASD

  unit # 86611. 722 Air Defence Regiment. Address: Moscow distr, Klin. S-300
Total: 16 SA-20 GARGOYLE / S-300 /PMU/2/3 

25 RTP Nesterovo ASD

  unit # 86655. 25 Radio-Technical Regiment. Address: 143100, Moscow distr, Nesterovo. 2008 commander: col Vitaly Dremluga

9 D PRO Sofrino-1, Barabanovo ASD

  unit # 75555. 9 Division of Ballistic Missile Defence. Address: 141270, Moscow distr, Sofrino. Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD)

900 KP PRO Sofrino-1 KV

  unit # 20007. 900 Command Point of BMD system. Address: 141270, Moscow distr, Sofrino-1. 5K80+ Pill Box

1876 TEKhB Kolodkino (Naro-Fominsk) KV

  unit # 02014. 1876 Technical Base. Address: Moscow distr, Narofominsk, Poryadino. earlier 51T6

102 PRTs Turakovo (Aleksandrov) KV

  unit # 48701. 102 Detached Anti Ballistic Missile Center. Address: Vladimir distr, Zhuklino. 12 53T6
Total:  SH-08 ABM-3 Gazelle 

12 PRK Korolev KV

  unit # 51085. 12 ABM Complex. Address: Moscow distr, Korolev, Oboldino. 12 53T6
Total:  SH-08 ABM-3 Gazelle 

15 PRK Vnukovo KV

  15 ABM Complex. Address: Moscow distr, Vnukovo. 12 53T6
Total:  SH-08 ABM-3 Gazelle 

572 ORTU Chekhov KV

  572nd Detached Radiotechnical Node. Dunai-3U, Cat House

164 POI Kubinka (Akulovo) KV

  unit # 52361. 164 Data Exchange Node. Address: Moscow distr, Akulovo. Dunai-3M, Dog House

482 ORTU Aleshino KV

  unit # 03523. 482 Detached Radio-Technical Node. Address: Moscow reg, Aleshino.

34 PS Klin KV

  unit # 12517. 34 comms rgt. Address: Moscow reg, Klin.

49 PRTs Sofrino KV

  unit # 51084. 49 ABM complex. Address: Moscow reg, Sofrino.

16 PRK Razvilka KV

  unit # 51086. 16 ABM complex. Address: Moscow reg, Razvilka.
Total:  SH-08 ABM-3 Gazelle 

89 PRK Krasnogorsk KV

  unit # 51089. 89 ABM complex. Address: 125310, Moscow reg, Korostovo. 16 53T6
Total:  SH-08 ABM-3 Gazelle 


  Military Academy VKO. Address: 170022, Tver-22, Zhigareva, 50. ex VU PVO


Chief--Col Gen Valery Gerasimov (11.2012). Ex Chief- Nikolai Makarov, Col Gen (since 06.2008). Ex-Chief- BALUYEVSKIY, Yuriy Nikolayevich, Col-Gen. (Krasnaya Zvezda, 11 Oct 97; , 20 Feb 02). Ex-First Deputy Chief of Ground Forces. Previous-Chief: Gen. Kvashnin. Directorates and Organizations ...[+]


SH-08 ABM-3 Gazelle
Short-range ABM interceptor missile which was first introduced in the mid 1980s, tasked with destroying the ballistic missiles that will evade the ABM-1 interceptors. The SH-08 Gazelle is very similar to the U.S. Sprint ABM interceptor deployed in 1974. The Gazelle is a nuclear-armed endoatmospheric ...[+]

SH-11 ABM-4 Gorgon
ABM interceptor missile introduced in the mid 1980s. Improved ABM-1b, based in silos surrounding Moscow. These are modified Galosh ABM missiles, those which first constituted the Moscow ABM system. Thirty-six remain in operation, based in silos surrounding Moscow. These missiles are designed ...[+]

OKNO ("Window") / Stationary Space Objects
Searching optoelectronic station of detection stationary space objects and Optoelectronic station of measuring angle coordinates and photometric measurement are parts of the "Window" optoelectronic complex of controlling the outer space. Searching optoelectronic station of detection stationary ...[+]

Hen House (Dnepr)
In 1991, the ground-based SPRN component consisted of nine early warning stations with 19 long-range early warning radars (including radars under construction) of various age, representing several generations of development. Five of the radars were the aging Dnestr and Dnestr-M [NATO name ...[+]

Pechora LPAR (Daryal)
The next stage of the development of the early warning radar network was the effort to deploy large phased-array radars of the Daryal (Pechora) type.13 An important feature of the new radar was that its receiving (or transmitting) station could use the existing Dnepr transmitting (or, correspondingly, ...[+]

Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorised in the decree of 3 August 1964. During development, in comparison to the original polyblock design, the engine performances were improved by about 5 seconds; the mass of the first stage increased by 71 tonnes; the second stage ...[+]

Tsyklon 3
Filial 4 of NII MO began work in 1967 on military operations plans for the 1971-1980 period. These were completed as plan Prognoz and Sirius Phase I in 1970. One objective of the plans was to reduce the number of military space launch vehicles from ten to three. The medium category space launch ...[+]

Zenit (Zenith)
First stage also used as strap-ons for Energia heavy booster. Zenit 2 version proposed using Block D third stage. Launch pads at Baikonur; those at Plesetsk still not finished. Considered for launch from Australia / Cape York. Now Zenit will be launched by US-Russia-Ukrainian joint venture ...[+]

Oko (US-KS)
Launches of early-warning satellites into highly elliptical orbits are performed by Molniya-M launchers from the Plesetsk launch site in the northern Russia. In the beginning of the program, there were serious problems with reliability of the satellites. Of the first 13 satellites, launched ...[+]

Potok (Geizer, 11F663)
Potok military relay satellites - code named Geizer - handle communications between ground stations and digital data from the Yantar-4KS1 and Yantar-4KS1M electro-optical reconnaissance satellite. Potok was the first communications spacecraft built by the Lavochkin design bureau. The Slav-2 ...[+]

Uragan-M (GLONASS-M, 11F654M)
GLONASS (Globalnaya Navigationnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema, Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System) is a Russian space-based navigation system comparable to the American GPS system, which consists of Uragan spacecraft. The operational system contains 21 satellites in 3 orbital planes, with ...[+]

RLS VZG Voronezh-DM/M
The Voronezh-DM is an energy-efficient, long-range surveillance radar designed to track ballistic missiles at ranges of up to 4,000 kilometers. Armavir, in Krasnodar region Southern Russia, is the first site equipped with the Voronezh-DM radar system. It was put on combat duty on February ...[+]

CINC--maj-gen Alexander Golovko. exCommander ---Maj Gen Oleg Ostapenko. Ex-CINC-- POPOVKIN, Vladimir, Lt-Gen (Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 11 March 04).

The Primary tasks of the Space Troops are:

missile attacks warning;
ABM defence;
creation, deployment, maintenance and control of the orbital satellites group.

The ABM facilities included 3 AD army and warning systems (PRN).

Staff and Command Point- Moscow

RCP- Znamenka-1, #14272, Tambovskaya obl.
RCP Balabanovo-1, Borovskiy region(district), Kaluzhskaya obl.

1 State test cosmodrome Plesetsk ( earlier 3 UAP, since September 1963 3 NIIP MOD )
2 State test cosmodromes Svobodnyy with IP-1, IP-2, IP-6
5 State test cosmodromes Baikonur (earlier 5 NIIP MOD, # 11284 since 1955) with IP-3, IP-5

3 missile-space defense armies -Solnechnogorsk, three divs, 14 separate radiotech formations of the different purposes:
1 warning div

Staff and Command Point - Solnechnogorsk

Warning systems represents 8 separate radiotechnical points (ORTU): five located outside the territory of Russia.
Radiotechnical point comprises one or several RLS, information is transferred to central command point in Solnechnogorsk.
Information from satellites in real-time is transferred to point of control in Serpuhov-15 (the village Kurilovo, Kaluzhskoy area). Then, processed information is transferred to command point of the Space Troops armies in Solnechnogorsk.

East CP SPRN- Komsomolsk
West CP SPRN- Serpuhov-15, #22251 (Kurilovo, 35 km north-west Serpuhov, Zhukovskiy region, Kaluzhskoy distr.)- receiving
information from space sat group that allows night and day control over the territory of USA in realtime.
System includes the antenna complex and information point for handling and storage data.
The Point of management is solely intended for warning about missile launches. On monitor missile is fixed by infrared radiation of the engine. The light strip grows on screen several minutes after start, till detachment of the third step.
During this time system calculates and issues exact information: type of the missile, programmed flight trajectory and target.

ORTU RO-1 Olenegorsk- RLS Dnepr/Daugava
ORTU RO-5 Beregovo,(Mukachevo ,Ukraine)- RLS Dnepr
ORTU RO-4 Nikolaev,(Sevastopol ,Ukraine)- RLS Dnepr
ORTU OS-2 Balhash (Kazakhstan)- RLS Dnepr+ Dnestr-M(SKKP)
ORTU OS-1 Mishelevka- RLS Dnepr +Dnestr-M(SKKP)
ORTU RO-30 Pechora- RLS Dariyal
ORTU RO-7 Gabala (Azerbaijan)- RLS Dariyal
ORTU Gancevichi (Belorussia)- RLS Volga

ORTU Komsomolsk- RLS Duga-2
In consequence of low efficiency of two-jump(?) over-the horizont radiolocation in the second half of 1980-s arised question on practical use of "Duga-2". In the beginning of 1990-s Duga-2 had the fire in consequence of which station was stopped. Financing for the recovering was winnowed slowly and only in November 2000 were reported that recovering was practically completed.

ORTU- Sofrino -RLS-DON-2N

9 division of antimissile defence- Sofrino-1, Barabanovo

The exploitation of the system of the antimissile defence A-135 unrolled around Moscow, provides division included in missile-defense army (RKO).
Command-measuring point of the system combined with RLS DON-2N is located in Sofrino Moscow area.
System includes RLS DON-2N, command-measuring point and ABM: 68 missiles 53T6 (Gazelle), intended for interception in atmosphere, and 32 missiles 51T6 (Gorgon), for the interception outside the atmosphere. Far interception missiles are located in mine launchers in positional regions around Moscow. (Sergiev Posad, Klin, Nudoli, Naro-Fominsk) eight launchers each.
Close interception missiles are located in five positional districts: 4x16 for defence of the Moscow and 1x4 for defence of RLS DON-2N. System was accepted in duty in 1995. Last launch tests were in October 2 2002 (51Т6) and November 2 1999 (53Т6).

Residing on combat duty since 1 December 1995, A-135 system is operated by 9 division of Space Troops. It includes multifunctional RLS 5Н20 DON-2N (Sofrino) and RLS DUNAY-3U (Chekhovo), as well as four mine launchers of the complex of distant interception missiles (51Т6) and close interception (53Т6), located near Sergieva Posad, Klin, Nudoli and Naro-Fominsk and counting 32 and 64 missiles respectively. The design of 51Т6 conducted by CB "Fakel" (Himki), 53Т6 -- CB "Novator" (Ekaterinburg).

Command-computing point 5К80- Sofrino (Sofrino-1, Krasnoarmeysk, Pushkin)- Command-measuring point, combined with RLS-DON-2N- (ORTU PRO+SKPP+SPRN)- Pill Box

Launch position- Novopetrovskaya (Nudoli)- 51Т6
Launch position- Klin-Klin-9,(85 km from Klin)- 51Т6
Launch position- Kolodkino (Naro-Fominsk)- 51Т6
Launch position Sergiev Posad (Zagorsk)- 51Т6
Launch position Skhodnya- 53Т6
Launch position- Turakovo (Alexander)- 53Т6
Launch position- Korolev- 53Т6
Launch position- Lytkarino- 53Т6
Launch position- Vnukovo- 53Т6
ORTU (separate radiotechnical element- Chekhov (Chehov-7, Stremilovo, Cherneckoe, Podolisk-20)- RLS DUNAY-3U - Cat House
ORTU- Kubinka (Akulovo) RLS DUNAY-3M- Dog House

45 division for supervision of the outer space Noginsk-9, Stromyni

The main component used for finding artificial satellites on low orbits and determination parameters of their orbits, are RLS systems of the early warning.

Command Point, associated with sources and consumers of information CP- Noginskiy region(district)

Optometrist-electronic complex Okno ("Window") composition of four search stations, two stations of the accompaniment and command-computing point of target
7680- Nurek (Tadzhikistan)- Optometrist-electronic complex "Okno"

"Krona" composition: RLS dm range, RLS sm range and command-computing point - Zelenchukskaya (Cherkessk)- Lazer location complex "Krona"

"Moment" radiotechnical complex of supervision of radiating space objects in Podmoskovie- since 2003

"Krona-N" radar complex for search of low orbit objects in FAR EAST (in process of commissioning)- Nakhodka (Pacific)

In composition of Command-Control Point the following interacting information system facilities are included:

radar stations "Dnepr" (Murmansk, Irkutsk - RF, Mukachevo, Sevastopol - an Ukraine, Gulishad - Kazakhstan);
radar stations "Dariyal" (Pechora - RF, Mingechaur - Azerbaijan);
radar station "Volga" (Baranovichi - Republic Belarus);
radar stations "DUNAY-3U" (Podmoskovie);
multifunctional RLS ABM defense "DON-2N" (Podmoskovie);
RLS "Azov" (20 ONIC MOD RF, Kamchatka);
radio and radio intelligence facilities;
optometrist-electronic stations "Sazhen'" and "Sazhen'-T" (in process of the debugging the interaction).

In composition of the enlisted system facilities KKP enters also the overland(land-mobile) network of the optical facilities (NSOS), located in RF, Kazakhstan and Ukraine.

Main test centre of the test and control of space facilities (GICIU KS)- Golicino-2 (Krasnoznamensk, 43 km Minskogo hiway-
153 GICIU- Includes: test centres, command-measuring complexes (11 OKIK- function- gathering;dues) -information on
satellites, includes(switches on;lists)- command point, station Aurora , complex of satellite communication Svyaznik , point of receiving of the system time(PPSEV)) and measuring point.

Centre command-measuring complex- Maloyaroslavec
Separate test centre- Mouth-Kamchatsk
4 OKIK- Eniseysk
6 OKIK- Vulkannyy (Kamchatka)
7 OKIK- Shahs(Barnaul)
9 OKIK- Krasnoe Selo
12 OKIK- Kolpashevo
13 OKIK- Nizhnie Tal'cy (Ulan-Ude)
14 OKIK- SCHelkovo-7
15 OKIK- Galenki (Ussuriysk)
17 OKIK- Solnechnyy (Komsomolsk)
18 OKIK- Vorkuta
OKIK - Armavir
IP-1- Plesetsk
IP-2- Plesetsk
IP-3- Nariyan-Mar
IP-5- Mirnyy(Pacific)

Military Engineering-Space Krasnoznamennyy university (earlier KVVIA im. A.F. Mozhayskogo)- SAINT PETERSBURG
Branch VIKKU- Pushkin-9 Leningrad dustr. (earlier school )

Military Institute of Radioelectronics (VIRE)- Kubinka-2

28 arsenal- Karian-Stroganov

"Popovkin was born in Dushanbe 25 September 1957. He is a graduate of the Mozhayskiy Military Space Academy, the Dzerzhinskiy Military Academy, and General Staff Military Academy courses. He served in engineer and command posts at Baykonur Cosmodrome, in the directorate of the commander of the Military Space Forces, and in the General Staff's Main Directorate for Operations. In June 2001 he was appointed chief of staff of the Space Troops by edict of President Vladimir Putin. He is a lieutenant general" ((Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 11 March 04).

Previous CINC was PERMINOV, Anatoliy, Col-Gen (RIA Novosti, 28 Mar 01).

Space Troops STAFF

Chief of Staff (Space Troops First Deputy Commander) --- ?

[Previous Chief of Staff was POPOVKIN, Vladimir, Lt-Gen ((Kommersant, 16 Jun 01; Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, 22 Jun 01; noted as a Lt-Gen, ITAR-TASS, 10 Jan 03).)

["… Military Space Forces were separated from other forces organizationally by order of the Minister of Defense on 10 August 1992." (Armeyskiy Sbornik No 2, Aug 94 (signed to press 29 Jul 94) pp 9- 13). "The Missile and Space Troops themselves include the Missile, Space, and Air Attack Early Warning Troops [Voyska Preduprezhdeniya o Raketno- Kosmicheskom Vozdushnom Napadenii]. The second element [of the Missile and Space Troops] was the system of missile and space defense and the space surveillance system ["sistema kontrolya kosmicheskogo prostranstva"] (Moscow Mayak Radio Network in Russian 1930 GMT 7 Dec 93). There was an interim period of roughly 6 months between Ivanov’s retirement and Grin’s appointment during which time the post of commander was left vacant. One source suggests that this was due to a debate within the Ministry of Defense as to whether or not to preserve the Space Forces during the period of reductions. Grin himself was groomed by Ivanov and had the approval of Rodionov. (Kommersant-Daily 14 Mar 97 p 3).] The Military-Space Forces were merged into the RVSN during the fall of 1997. and were to be removed from the RVSN as of the end of January 2001 and renamed the "Space Troops" (Rossiyskaya Gazeta 27 Jan 01 P 2). The latter move did not occur until March.. Their status as an independent Combat arm was established as of the appointment of Perminov as Commander, 28 March 2001.]
"1. Before 1 June 2001 the Russian Federation branch of service the Strategic Missile Troops is to be transformed into the Russian Federation branches of service the Strategic Missile Troops and the Space Troops; " Presidential Edict No. 337s
Deputy Commander (Missile-Space Defense (RKO) --- SHISHKIN, Anatoliy Semyenovich, Lt-Gen (Kommersant, 16 Jun 01; noted as a Lt-Gen, Voyennyye Znaniya, 1 Oct 02).

[SHISHKIN: "All of his service has been tied to the RKO troops where he managed to command a missile attack warning division, and then was the RKO Chief of Staff" (Kommersant, 16 Jun 01). "Anatoliy Semyenovich Shishkin was born on 11 November 1952, in the village Abramovka, Voronezh Oblast. In 1973, he graduated from the Zhitomirsk Higher Surface-to-Air Missile Command School and served in the positions of company commander, engineer, senior section engineer - shift supervisor of the radio-technical center transceiver radio-technical post. After graduating from the PVO Military Command Academy in 1982, he became unit deputy chief of staff for combat command and control, subunit commander, and unit commander. In 1992, he graduated from the Russian Federation Armed Forces General Staff Military Academy and was appointed combined formation deputy chief of staff for combat command and control. He has served in regions with severe climatic conditions - in Kazakhstan, Murmansk, and the Komi ASSR. In the future he would hold positions of formation commander, chief of staff - deputy commander of Missile and Space Defense [RKO], and chief of staff of the RKO RVSN [Strategic Missile Troops]. In 1999, he became chief of the RKO RVSN Troops Directorate. By Russian Federation Presidential Decree of 9 July 2001, he was appointed Deputy Space Troops Commander" (Voyennyye Znaniya, 1 Oct 02).]
Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyanov has approved the composition of the Russian section of the Russian- Azerbaijani commission that is tasked to determine chattels of the Gabala radar station that are to become property of the Russian Federation. The commission includes officials of the Defense Ministry, Property Ministry, Interior Ministry and interested organizations, an official of the government information department told Interfax- Military News Agency on Monday. Deputy Commander of the Russian Space Troops Lieutenant General Anatoly Shishkin is appointed chairman of the commission on behalf of Russia. (Agentstvo Voyennykh Novostey 7 Oct 02).
Deputy Commander (Armaments) --- GROMOV, Oleg, Maj-Gen (Kommersant, 16 Jun 01; Interfax, 2 Oct 02).

Deputy Commander (Educational Work) --- KHOMENKO, Ivan, Lt-Gen (Kommersant, 16 Jun 01; Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 3 Mar 04).

Deputy Commander (Rear Services) --- PARNYSHKOV, Nikolay, Col (Kommersant, 16 Jun 01).

STAFF [Space Troops]
Chief of Staff (Space Troops First Deputy Commander) --- POPOVKIN, Vladimir, Maj-Gen ((Kommersant, 16 Jun 01; noted as a Lt-Gen, Krasnaya Zvezda, 6 Nov 02).

["Prior to his coming to the KV, POPOVKIN served in the Main Operations Directorate of the General Staff" (Kommersant, 16 Jun 01).]
Deputy Chief of Staff --- DERKACH, Vladimir, Maj-Gen (Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, 22 Jun 01).
Chief of Cadre Directorate -- Colonel Sergey Panasyuk (Agentstvo Voyennykh Novostey, 27 Jan 03).

3rd Separate Missile-Space Defense Army [Top of page]
Commander --- KURUSHKIN, Sergey, Lieutenant-General (Agentstvo Voyennykh Novostey, 19 Nov 02).

1st Missile Attack Warning Division [3rd Sep VKO Army]
· Includes "Volga" Missile Attacking Warning System (SPRN) site which went on alert duty in the forests near the Belarusian village of Gantsevichi, in 2003 (Rossiyskaya Gazeta, 23 Oct 03).
· Includes seven individual technical hubs in the Russian Missile Attacking Warning System (Rossiyskaya Gazeta, 23 Oct 03).
9th Space Forces Missile Defense Division [Top of page]
[In Sofrino, Moscow Oblast (, 16 Jan 03). Don-2N multifunctional radar station, which forms the basis of Moscow's A-135 missile defense system (Kommersant, 16 Jan 03).]
Armaments [Top of page]
Chief --- GROMOV, Oleg, Maj-Gen (Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, 22 Jun 01; Interfax, 2 Oct 02).

Baykonur Cosmodrome [Military-Space Forces] [Space Troops Staff]
[To be transferred to the RF Space Agency, (Krasnaya Zvezda in Russian 28 Oct 98 p 1).]
[Following the breakup of the USSR joint use of the Cosmodrome was arranged by Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan. The use of land, and use and ownership of movable property was assigned to the Strategic Forces of the CIS. --- Coordination of scientific-production activity in the preparation and implementation of space programs, and also the use of space technologies in support of science and the national economy, was to be done by the Republic of Kazakhstan Space Research Agency and the Russian Space Agency. (Rossiyskiye Vesti No 18, 12 Jun 92 p 4).]
[In July 1993 Defense Minister Grachev asserted Russian ownership and declared unilaterally that: "The Baykonur space launching grounds is a Russian military facility." (ITAR-TASS 1255 GMT 2 Jul 93).]
[On 28 March 1994 Russia and Kazakhstan signed an agreement on "the Basic Principles and Conditions Governing the Use of the 'Baykonur' Space Center," providing for the transfer and use of the facilities by the Russian Space Agency, for which lease Russia would pay $115 million in 1994. Utilities and materiel will be provided by the RF MoD. (Rossiyskaya Gazeta 7 Sep 94 First Edition p 4).]
Chief --- BARANOV, Leonid, Lt-Gen (RIA Novosti, 2 Nov 01).

[Previous Chiefs were:

SHUMILIN, Aleksey, Lt-Gen, (Izvestiya 7 Jul 93 p 5). (Moscow Mayak Radio Network in Russian 1930 GMT 1 Nov 94). (Krasnaya Zvezda 23 Feb 96 p 3).]
Lt-Gen Arty Aleksey Ivanovich NESTERENKO (1955-1958);
Gen Konstantin Vasilyevich GERCHIK (1958-1961);
Gen Aleksandr Grigor’yevich ZAKAROV (1961-1965);
Gen Aleksandr Aleksandrovich KURUSHIN (1965-1973);
Gen Valentin Illarionovich FADEYEV (1975-1983);
Gen Yuriy Nikolayevich SERGUNIN (1978-1983);
Gen Yuriy Averkovich ZHUKOV (1983-1989). (Krasnaya Zvezda 18 Sep 90 First Edition p 2);
Lt-Gen Aleksey Leontyevich KRYZHKO (1991-1992). (Krasnaya Zvezda 14 Mar 91 First Edition p 4.) (Krasnaya Zvezda 4 Mar 92 1st Ed p 1).]

Launch Center (Baykonur) [Baykonur]
Chief --- BARANOV, Leonid, Lt-Gen (Almaty Kazakh Commercial TV, 1 May 00). (Krasnaya Zvezda 27 Jan 01).

Previous Chief was CHIFIN, Dmitriy Timofeyevich, , (Krasnaya Zvezda 8 Dec 98 p 2). BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION, CHIFIN: born and grew up in Semipalatinsk. Missile Academy imeni F. E. Dzerzhinskiy, first as a cadet, then as an officer. Since then, since 1977, assigned to Baykonur. Began as a section engineer and now is commander of a combat crew—in Ground Troops terminology -- a regimental commander. (Krasnaya Zvezda 8 Dec 98 p 2).]
Central Scientific Research Institute for Space Systems [Space Troops Staff]
(Krasnaya Zvezda 6 Aug 94 p 3).
Combat Training
Chief --- SUBBOTIN, Aleksandr, Col (Krasnaya Zvezda, 21 Nov 03; Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 3 Mar 04).

Cosmonaut Training, Russian State Scientific-Research Test Center for, imeni Yu. A. Gagarin [Space Troops Staff]
[Previously referred to as Cosmonaut Training Center imeni Yu.A. Gagarin, Pilot-Cosmonaut, the Center was renamed in 1995 in recognition of the joint interest of both the Ministry of Defense and the Russian Space Agency (Krasnaya Zvezda 10 Jun 95 p 1).]
Head --- KLIMUK, Petr, Lt-Gen (ITAR-TASS 1255 GMT 2 Jul 93). Appointed Sept. 1991. (Krasnaya Zvezda 10 Jun 95 p 1).

· [BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION, KLIMUK: born 10 July 1942 in Komarovka village. Chernigov Higher Aviation School (1964), Gagarin Air Force Academy (1977), Lenin Military-Political Academy (1982). 1965-1978 cosmonaut. Pilot-cosmonaut 1st Class. Space Flights in 1973, 1975, 1978. Twice Hero of Soviet Union. (Voyeninform Military News Bulletin No 3, Mar 94 p 3/1).]

Educational Institutions [Space Troops Staff]
Military Space Academy imeni A.F. Mozhayskiy
Address: 197082, St. Petersburg, Zhdanovskaya Naberezhnaya, 13, Tel. 235-88-74, 235-87-23, 235-88-43. Also referred to as the Military Engineering and Space Academy, (Krasnaya Zvezda 4 Feb 95 p 6). (Krasnaya Zvezda 20 Jan 96 p 6).
[Founded 1941 on basis of the Leningrad Civil Aviation Engineering Institute. 5-year training program. (MOLODEZH ESTONII 22 Mar 91 p 3.)]
Chief --- KOVALEV, Aleksandr Pavlovich (Krasnaya Zvezda, 15 Jan 02).
Deputy chief for Training and Scientific Work --- KALININ, Vladimir Nikolayevich, Maj-Gen

Peter the Great Military Academy [Affiliate of Military Space Academy]
located in the town of Pushkin, Leningrad Rayon (ITAR-TASS, 10 Jan 03).
Space Forces' Moscow Military Institute of Electronics
located in Kubinka, Moscow region (ITAR-TASS, 10 Jan 03).
Chief --- Derkach, Vladimir, Major-General (Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 3 Mar 04).

Military Air Defense University
In Tver, Central Russia. (ITAR-TASS, 10 Jan 03).
Military-Space Cadet Corps
(Krasnaya Zvezda, 6 Dec 03 (RF Defense Minister Order No 337 of 22 September 2003, Moscow)).
Indoctrination Work [Space Troops Staff]
Chief (Space Troops Deputy Commander) --- KHOMENKO, Ivan, Lt-Gen (Kommersant, 16 Jun 01; Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, 22 Jun 01).

Golitsyno-2: German Titov Main Experimental Center for the Testing and Use of Space Equipment [Space Troops Staff]
(Главный испытательный центр испытаний и применения космических средств (ГИЦИП КС) им. Германа Титова).

["---Directing and testing all orbital spacecraft--- including, those designed for the national economy, science, and military, and excluding only those relating to PVO Troops, Intelligence, and the 'Mir' space station---" (Moscow IZVESTIYA 23 Feb 91 Union Edition p 1.)]
[Control and telemetry complexes scattered across Russia, as well as control and telemetry complex ships. (Krasnaya Zvezda 6 Aug 94 p 3).]
Chief --- KOLESNIKOV, Nikolay, Maj-Gen (Krasnaya Zvezda, 2 Feb 02).

[Biographical Information, Kolesknikov: "родился в 1951 году. Окончил Ставропольское высшее военно-инженерное училище связи, Военный институт имени А.Ф. Можайского, Военные академии имени Ф.Э. Дзержинского и Генерального штаба Вооруженных Сил РФ. До назначения начальником ГИЦИП КС служил начальником штаба этого центра" (Krasnaya Zvezda, 2 Feb 02).]
· [Previous Chief was ZAPADINSKIY, Anatoliy Borisovich, Lt-Gen, (Interfax 1652 GMT 24 Aug 94); (Russian Public Television 0518 GMT 21 Jan 99). BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION, ZAPADINSKY: born in 1947. Father was an army officer. Kharkov Military Engineering School (1969). Served in Priozyorsk, Kazakhstan as chief of a telemetering station. Dzerzhinskiy Military Academy (1984). Commanded a regiment, a brigade and a division. General Staff Academy (1994). Appointed to command the Spacecraft Test and Control Center of the Russian Space Forces. (Interfax 1652 GMT 24 Aug 94). Noted as a Maj-Gen, (Krasnaya Zvezda 17 Nov 94 p 2). Noted as a Lt-Gen, (Krasnaya Zvezda 18 Nov 95 p 1).]

Main Space Command (Center?) [Space Troops Staff]
(Located near Moscow. Noted in IZVESTIYA 12 Dec 90 Union Ed p 6.)
Military Research Committee (of the Space Troops)
Chairman --- Vladimir Kuznetsov (Agentstvo Voyennykh Novostey 29 Oct 02).

Okno Optical-Electronic Complex
[Space monitoring facility. Located in Tajikistan (Channel One TV, 23 Oct 03).]
Operations Directorate
Chief --- STARUKHIN, Viktor, Maj-Gen (Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, 22 Jun 01; Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 31 Mar 04).

Plesetsk Cosmodrome
[By decree of 11 Nov 1994 Plesetsk was named the "Russian Federation Ministry of Defense 1st State Experimental Spaceport" and made part of the Military/Space Forces. (Krasnaya Zvezda 15 Nov 94 p 1). In Reforms 1997-1997 combined with Range 53 (Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, Oct 30 - Nov 5 98).]
Chief -- BASHLAKOV, Anatoliy, Maj-Gen (Krasnaya Zvezda, 4 Feb 03; Agentstvo Voyennykh Novostey, 2 Apr 03).

[Bashlakov: "born in the Mashkovo village in the Bryansk region on May 11, 1957. He graduated from the Riga Higher Military Political College and the missile department of the Military Political Academy. He served in units of the Strategic Missile Forces, holding various positions, among them commander of a missile regiment and deputy commander of a missile division. After graduating from the General Staff Academy in 2000, Bashlakov was appointed chief-of-staff and first deputy chief of the Plesetsk cosmodrome. He was promoted to his current position from that post" (Agentstvo Voyennykh Novostey, 2 Apr 03).]
[Previous Chief was KOVALENKO, Gennadiy, Lt-Gen (Krasnaya Zvezda, 31 May 01; Armeyskiy Sbornik, Jul 02): "Gennadiy Nikolayevich Kovalenko was born on 6 June 1951 in Shovgenskiy Rayon in the Adygey AO. In 1973 he graduated from the Chief Marshal of Artillery M.I. Nedelin Rostov Higher Military Command-Engineering School. He served in the RVSN [Strategic Missile Troops] in positions from group engineer to chief of staff-deputy commander of a missile regiment. In 1985 he graduated from the Command Faculty of the F.E. Dzerzhinskiy Military Academy and was appointed commander of a missile regiment. From 1985 to 1992 he was commander of a missile regiment, chief of staff-deputy commander of a missile division. After graduating from the Military Academy of the RF Armed Forces General Staff in 1992, he was appointed commander of a missile division. In 1999 he became chief of the Plesetsk State Experimental Cosmodrome. He has been awarded the order 'For Military Service', and Order of Honor." (Armeyskiy Sbornik, Jul 02).]
Outer Space Monitoring System
[SKKP -- Sistema kontrolya kosmicheskogo prostranstva.]
[Was part of PVO. Now likely to be subordinate to Military-Space Forces. Subordination hinted at, but not explicitly stated in source. (Krasnaya Zvezda 8 Sep 90 1st ed p 4.)]
[IVANOV: "Three of our command-measurement complexes-- Yevpatoriya, Simferopol, and Dunayevtsy--have been transferred to the jurisdiction of Ukraine." (Moscow ARGUMENTY I FAKTY in Russian No 16, Apr 93 p 5).
Nurek Space Monitoring Center (Krasnaya Zvezda 3 Oct 92 p 2).
Rear Services
Deputy Commander (Rear Services) --- PARNYSHKOV, Nikolay, Col (Kommersant, 16 Jun 01).

(Solnechnogorsk) Missile-Space Defense Army
Semipalatinsk Test Range
Chief --- KONOVALENKO, Yuriy, Lt-Gen (Komsomol’skaya Pravda 23 Dec 93 p 1).
Deputy Chief for Scientific Work -- SAFONOV, Fedor, Maj-Gen (ITAR-TASS 0915 GMT 4 Nov 93). (KAZAKHSTANSKSYS PRAVDA 14 Feb 95 p 3).

Svobodniy Cosmodrome
[Officially named a 'Cosmodrome' 1 March 1996 (Krasnaya Zvezda 5 Mar 96 p 1). Formerly SVOBODNIY-18 one-time RVSN missile base in Amur Oblast', near Blagoveshchensk.] Main Center for Testing and Application of Space Technologies [Svobodniy Cosmodrome]
Chief --- VENEDIKTOV, Aleksandr, Maj-Gen (ITAR-TASS 0825 GMT 18 Mar 94).

Separate Special-Purpose Missile Warning Army
[Created on the basis of the 3rd Separate Army, the Missile Defense Corps and the Space Monitoring Division, (Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye (Electronic Version) in Russian No 41, Oct 30 - Nov 5 1998).]
Chief of Staff of an UI Formation --- YUNEV, Vladimir Mikhaylovich, Maj-Gen, (Krasnaya Zvezda 26 Feb 99).

[BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION, YUENV: "born in Maritime Kray. He was educated in the Ussuri Suvorov School; completed Zhitomir Higher Command School of Air Defense Electronics, which was the forge of Missile-Space Defense specialists; and later completed the Air Defense Academy's command faculty. He has served in the Army for around 30 years…" (Krasnaya Zvezda 26 Feb 99).]
Transport, Military T. Communications Service (VOSO) [Space Troops]
Head --- Levchuk, Vladimir, Colonel (Agentstvo Voyennykh Novostey 1 Aug 01).

Warning, Missile Attack Warning System (Система предупреждения о ракетном нападений.) [VKS]
[Subordinated to Strategic Missile Troops, October 1997 (Itar-Tass 1219 GMT 14 Oct 97).]
[N.B. While a 1990 source stated that this agency was subordinate to the Air Defense Troops, (Krasnaya Zvezda 27 Sep 90 1st ed p 2.), subsequent references have indicated that this function is now part of Aerospace Defense Forces, (Moscow Mayak Radio Network in Russian 1930 GMT 7 Dec 93).]
Deputy Commander --- KARTASHOV, Nikolay, Lt-Gen (Itar-Tass 1219 GMT 14 Oct 97).

Gabala (Azerbaijan) Missile Attack Warning Station [VKS]
(Moscow Radiostantsiya Ekho Moskvy in Russian 1500 GMT 11 Jun 94). (Baku ZERKALO in Russian 22 Apr 95 p 1).
(Radar Sites) [Missile Attack Warning System] [VKS]
["…over-the-horizon radars stationed in Pechora, Murmansk, (Latvia), Mukachevo and Sevastopol (Ukraine), Mingechaur (Azerbaijan), near Balkhash (Kazakhstan), and Irkutsk." (IZVESTIYA 10 Mar 95 p 2).
["…Now Russia is left with three over-the-horizon radar stations -- in Murmansk, Pechora, and Irkutsk." (RABOCHAYA TRIBUNA 8 Apr 95 p 4).]
[The Skrunda facility was dismantled (ITAR-TASS 1255 GMT 3 Dec 98).]
Volga Radar Station (At Baranovichi, Belarus)
[Placed in operation 1 October 2003 (Channel One TV, 2 Oct 03).]
Serpukhov-15 (Satellite Communications "Object")
Located in Kaluga Oblast. Seriously damaged by a fire on 10 May 01 (Pravda, 17 May 01).
UI Missile-Space Defense Army
(объединения ракетно-космической обороны (РКО))
Commander --- KURUSHKIN, Sergey, Maj-Gen (Krasnaya Zvezda, 23 Oct 01; Agentstvo Voyennykh Novostey, 20 Mar 02).



Voronezh DM (RSVZG)



Space Troops C3 visited by Pres. Putin and French Pres. J. Chirac. ©

Space Troops ©





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