The surface-to-air missile system ensures:
simultaneous engaging up to 6 targets by guidance of up to 12 missiles;
highly automated detection and acquisition procedures;
stand-alone combat capability;
conditions for a sustained duty;
high capability for integration into any air defence forces;
capability to operate in wooded and harsh terrain;
a 10-year no-maintenance missile serviceability.
The S-300PMU1 surface-to-air missile system comprises:
a 30N6E1 illumination and guidance radar;
up to 12 5P85ME (5P85SE) launchers, each carrying four 48N6E surface-to-air guided missiles;
ITI2-2M location referencer;
spare parts and accessories sets;
82Ts6E SAM technical maintenance facilities.
The 83M6E control facilities are intended for data exchange and control of air defence units equipped with the S-300PMU1 SAM system.
This vertically launched missile uses a single-stage solid propellant rocket motor. It is normally armed with a 100 kg HE-fragmentation warhead with a proximity fuse, though a low yield tactical nuclear type is believed to be an alternative warhead option. The missile's vertical launch trajectory provides fastest available reaction time capability to counter targets approaching from any azimuth. Missile engagement altitude extend from 25 m up to about 30,000 m. The maximum engagement range is stated as at least 90000 m, though in practice it is probably greater.
The SA-10A launch complex consists of a missile battery which includes a battery command post and engagement control center, the large CLAM SHELL 3D continuous wave pulse Doppler target acquisition radar, the FLAP LID A I-band multi-function phased-array trailer-mounted engagement radar with digital beam steering in hardened sites, and up to 12 semi-trailer erector-launchers which mount four tubular missile container-launchers. The towing unit for the semi-trailer erector-launcher is the KrAZ-260V (6 x 6) tractor truck. The launchers are usually positioned on concrete pads with the trailers being leveled by the use of four hydraulic jacks. An S-300PMU Regiment comprises three such batteries and employs the BIG BIRD 4 meter tall F-band long-range, 3D surveillance and tracking radar at the Regimental command post for initial target detection.
In the mid-1980s design work on the mobile S-300PMU SA-10B GRUMBLE Mod 1 was completed. This version of the weapon is carried and vertically launched from a dedicated four-round capacity transporter-erector launcher vehicle based on the MAZ-7910 (8 x 8) truck chassis. The combined engagement radar and control station is mounted on the same chassis. The SA-10B mobile missile battery comprises the combined FLAP LID B engagement radar and engagement control/command post station mounted on a MAZ-7910 chassis, up to 12 TELs (SPU: mobile launcher unit), a trailer-mounted 36D6; CLAM SHELL 3D 360? scanning target designation radar, and a maintenance section. The SA-10B Regiment consists of three such batteries with an additional radar section and a number of TZM (transport-loader vehicles) MAZ-7910 transloaders for
resupply purposes. The TEL carries a total of four sealed container-launcher cylinders, each of which is used for the storage, transport and launching of a missile. When traveling the launcher system is carried in the horizontal position but at the launch site is elevated to an angle of 90?.
battery takes only five minutes to deploy once it comes to the halt. The vehicles have electronic inter-vehicle communications and data transmission links with elevatable pole-type antenna, and thus it does not require interconnecting vehicle cables. Each of the MAZ-7910 derivative vehicles has four hydraulic jacks positioned either side between the first/second and third/fourth road wheels which are lowered to the ground to provide a more stable and level environment.
Missile guidance is of the Track-Via-Missile (TVM) type with the FLAP LID guidance radar capable of engaging up to six targets simultaneously, with two missiles assigned per target to ensure a high kill probability. Maximum target velocity is stated as 4200 km/h with the battery capable of firing three missiles per second.
If the battery is employed in rugged terrain or forest then the engagement radar system can be mounted on a special trailer-mounted extendible 24.4 m high tower to improve radar coverage. The use of this extended-range radar for low level engagements increases the system's range to 43,200 m from the original 32,000 m. In its sealed container-launcher cylinder the missile is considered to be a round of ammunition and is said not to require any check-ups or adjustments for a period of 10 years.
SA-10E / S300PMU2 Favorit
Favorit is now the world's most powerful and efficient air defense system.
Efficient protection from air attacks is essential for any state. The past few years have proved this assertion more than once. The Persian Gulf war graphically demonstrated that modern air attack weapons are capable of independently fulfilling major strategic tasks and actually determining the outcome of a military conflict even before the beginning of ground operations by delivering blows to major enemy defense and industrial facilities.
Such blows are characterized by the mass use of strategic and tactical aviation, cruise missiles and high-accuracy weapons in all possible conditions, including intensive active and passive jamming. This factor must be taken into account in developing and modernizing air defense systems.
54K6E2 battle management center
The efficiency of modern air defense systems primarily depends on their ability to counter tactical missiles, above all Scud missiles which today are classified as non-strategic missiles. This task has been given top priority largely owing to the role Iraq's ballistic missiles played during the Gulf hostilities.
On the day after an anti-Iraqi coalition launched its Operation Desert Storm, Iraq attacked the coalition with Scuds and their variants. Anticipating this development of events, the coalition command had, before the operation, deployed in the region the world's first local antimissile missile system, based on the United States' Patriot missile.
Dozens of Iraqi Scuds fired at Israel and Saudi Arabia at night killed tens of peoples (among them 28 servicemen who were in barracks destroyed by one of the missiles) and injured several hundred people. For the so-called "hi-tech war" those were rather high figures. The much-publicized coalition missiles proved inefficient in combating Scuds because they failed to destroy them by exploding close to them.
The Gulf war caused an increase in attention to the problem of anti-ballistic missile defense in all the major countries of the world, on the one hand, and prompted them to work out programs for developing or purchasing ballistic missiles, on the other.
The names of such ballistic missiles as Jericho, No Dong, Taeno Dong, and Eastern Wind have only recently made it onto the pages of newspapers and magazines. To have a Scud of one's own today or in the next few years has for some countries become a matter of national prestige.
64N6E2 acquisition radar
The obvious strategic gap in the range of armaments and military equipment in service with Western armed forces, which manifested itself so graphically during Operation Desert Storm, gave new impetus to the development of antimissile programs in the USA, France, Israel, and some other countries. The outcome of the Gulf war also largely determined the direction of the modernization of Russia's widely known S-300PMU1 air defense missile system, named Favorit.
This system is the result of cooperation between industrial enterprises, research institutes, design bureaus, plants and financial structures grouped in the Oboronitelniye Sistemy (Defence Systems) Financial and Industrial Group. This group, which unites Russian businesses and all leading specialists currently developing and manufacturing air defense systems, ensures the high quality of these systems, the organization of their repairs and warranty maintenance, the production of spare parts and the training of specialists.
Favorit was developed by the Almaz Central Design Bureau which has already created several generations of missile systems: from S-25 to S-300PMU1, most of which have been sold to dozens of countries around the world.
What is the Favorit missile system?
Essentially, this is a universal mobile multichannel air defense system. It is intended to ensure highly efficient protection of major government and defense facilities from mass strikes of modern and future aircraft, strategic cruise missiles, tactical and theater ballistic missiles and other airborne weapons. It functions within the full range of altitudes and speeds of targets' combat employment, including in heavy electronic countermeasures environments.
The Favorit system comprises the 83M6E2 command post and up to six S-300PMU2 air defense missile systems. The command post consists of the 54K6E2 battle management center and the 64N6E2 acquisition radar. Each air defense missile system includes the 30N6E2 multifunctional illumination and guidance radar and up to 12 5P85SE (5P85TE) launchers. The S-300PMU2 system may also accommodate the 96L6E radar.
The 54K6E2 battle management center collects and analyzes aerial situation data from various sources, exercises fire control, receives commands and information on air targets from the air defense zone command post, prioritizes threats, distributes targets among air defense missile complexes and designates the targets to be destroyed. The battle management center can control any combination of S-300PMU2, S-300PMU1, S-300PMU and S-200VE air defense missile systems.
The fully-automatic 64N6E2 acquisition radar provides the command post with data on aerial targets within a range of 300 kilometers.
30N6E2 multifunctional illumination and guidance radar
The multifunctional 30N6E2 illumination and guidance radar searches for, detects and automatically tracks targets and performs all operations involved in air defense missile attacks and in the preparations for them.
The 5P85SE (5P85TE) launcher ensures the storage, transportation and launch of four 48N6E2 (48N6E) air defense missiles, kept in sealed canisters.
The 96L6E all-altitude phased-array target designation radar, included in the S-300PMU2 air defense system, automatically supplies air situation data to the 30N6E2 illumination and guidance radar and the 83M6E2 command post. Owing to the adaptive use of wide band signals and multiple frequency operation, the radar ensures highly efficient detection of targets at low, medium and high altitudes. The radar antenna assembly can be mounted on a special tower for detecting targets at extremely low altitudes in wooded areas and over rugged terrain.
During operation, Favorit's acquisition and illumination and guidance radar simultaneously scan the air space, detecting and identifying aerial targets. The simultaneous scanning of the air space by several radars completely denies targets any access to a protected zone, including ground-hugging cruise missiles flying at extremely low altitudes from any direction, even in conditions of intensive reflections from local objects and deployment of electronic countermeasures by the enemy.
Outwardly, Favorit does not differ much from its predecessors. Nevertheless, it is not simply a modernized version but basically a new air defense system. Compared to the
S-300PMU1 system, Favorit has several new capabilities:
- increased effectiveness of ballistic target destruction, ensuring the detonation of a military load carried by the target;
- increased effectiveness of aerodynamic target engagement, including targets flying at low altitudes, in complicated tactical and jamming environments;
- an increased range of aerodynamic target engagement (up to 200 kilometers), including the engagement of receding targets;
- an increased capability of the 83M6E command post of detecting and tracking ballistic targets, while preserving the aerodynamic target detection capabilities;
- enhanced performance of the system during autonomous combat operations due to the use of the 96L6E self-contained, next-generation radar;
- enhanced possibilities for integrating Favorit into various air defense systems.
Another marked advantage of the Favorit system is that all its components can remain on alert for a long time, which is of particular importance in a period prior to a military conflict. The technical capabilities of Favorit components ensure their uninterrupted operation in high alert conditions for two days and over a longer period for shorter intervals.
The Favorit system may include not only 48N6E2 air defense missiles but also 48N6E missiles which are currently used in S-300PMU1 systems.
The 48N6E2 air defense guided missile was developed by the Fakel Machine-Building Design Bureau, which has for decades been the main producer of missiles for the air defense systems of Russia's Army and Navy.
The development of the new missile, which began in the early 1990s, required numerous calculations and tests, during which the missile demonstrated its capability to intercept targets at a range of 200 kilometers and the required efficiency in destroying various kinds of targets. The missile system includes all the components of the S-300PMU1 system, among them transport and launch canisters, launcher and all ground servicing facilities.
The 48N6E2 missile has retained all the attractive qualities of air defense missiles developed by Fakel for the S-300PMU systems, such as cold vertical launch by a catapult and advanced technologies used in the production of missile elements.
5P85SE launcher with 48N6E2 missiles in canisters
The new missile also boasts enhanced reliability and ease of repair and maintenance. In present-day conditions, this factor is as important as flight characteristics. Although the Favorit system is a multi-component weapon, target-destruction depends primarily on the air defense missile, on its reliability and capability of efficiently fulfilling guidance commands in heavy jamming, high-speed and overload environments.
The Fakel Design Bureau has implemented in practice the principle of guaranteed reliability of missiles, which has added a basically new quality to them: the possibility of their test-free service in the Army for a long warranty period. This goal was achieved via the use of a set of technologies, among them the full cycle of ground missile tests on Fakel test beds. Missiles are tested in transportation, storage, alert and even target-approaching modes in climatic and anechoic chambers, on dynamic and static test beds, and on shakers.
Other innovations used in the 48N6E2 missile include the use of fundamentally new guidance algorithms, more advantageous flight trajectories and new military loads. The development of the missile proceeded in several directions simultaneously and lasted several years. Fakel specialists selected the prototype which showed overwhelming advantages over others both in ground and flight tests.
The combat capabilities of the new system were first tested on August 10, 1995, on the Kapustin Yar testing range in an encounter with Scud ballistic missiles. Several 48N6E2 missiles were launched to intercept Scuds. During the interception, the explosion of the air defense missiles' military load detonated the high-explosive charge of the ballistic missiles. Russian scientists and specialists were the first in the world to achieve so remarkable a result. The best achievement of Patriot missiles during Operation Desert Storm was the interception of Scud missiles after which the latter deviated from the termination point by four to five kilometers. Throughout the Gulf war, Patriots never managed to destroy a single Scud missile in the air.
According to the Air Defense Forces command, Favorit is now the world's most powerful and efficient air defense system. In conditions of limited funding, the reform of the Army and the forthcoming merger of services in the Armed Forces, the use of Favorit as an inter-service system will increase the efficiency of Russia's air defense with minimum cost.
The development of the Favorit air defense system marks the emergence in Russia of a system capable of effectively countering strikes of "non-strategic missiles."
CCA 83M6E 83M6E2
Number of simultaneously:
controlled AD missile systems 6 6
detected targets 300 300
tracked targets 100 100
designated targets 36 36
Target acquisition range, km 300 300
Scanned area, deg:
azimuth 0 - 360 or 0 - 180 0 - 360 or 0 - 180
elevation 0 - 14 or 0 - 28 0 - 14 or 0 - 28
Ballistic target detection sector, deg:
azimuth up to 60 60
elevation 0 - 55 or 20 - 75 0 - 75
detected targets, m/s up to 2,800 up to 2,800
vehicle movement, km/h:
on highway 60 60
on dirt road 30 30
azimuth, deg 0.5 0.5
elevation, deg 0.5 0.5
range, m 150 150
Time of deployment (closing-down), min 5 5
Fuel distance, km 800 800
Service life, years 20 20
Combat crew 5 5
SA-10F / S300PMU2/3 Antey-2500
Designed to defeat ground-based battlefield and theater ballistic missiles with a launch range of up to 2,500 km, aeroballistic and cruise missiles, strategic and tactical aircraft, as well as loitering ECM platforms and high-precision weapon systems in multiple air threat conditions, complex air situation and severe ECM environment.
The Antey-2500 air defense missile system features:
- high degree of battle performance automation owing to high-speed digital computers;
- phased-array radars;
- advanced radar data processing methods;
- high ECM immunity;
- high ability of autonomous operation;
- high mobility;
- high fire power potential, irrespective of air attack tactics or sequence;
- vertical launch from a special transport launch canister;
- maintenance-free operation of missiles for at least ten years;
- capability to defeat ballistic missile individual warheads featuring an effective reflective area (ERA) over 0.02 m2 and flying at speeds of up to 4,500 m/s;
- inertial guidance with radio command update and semiactive homing at the terminal phase;
- directional detonation of missile warhead.
The Antey-2500 system comprises:
- command post;
- circular scan radar;
- sector scan radar;
- multichannel missile guidance station (MMGS) (4);
- 9A83M launcher (24);
- 9A84M loader-launcher (24);
- 9M82M air defense missiles;
- 9M83M air defense missiles;
- maintenance vehicles;
- maintenance and repair vehicles;
- group SPTA set;
- electronic simulator for MMGS operator training;
- transporter vehicles;
- set of rigging equipment for handling missiles.
The 9M82M missile is intended to defeat battlefield, theater and medium-range ballistic missiles, as well as aerodynamic targets at a range of up to 200 km. The missile is controlled throughout the entire flight trajectory.
The 9M83M missile is intended to engage short- and medium-range ballistic missiles and aerodynamic targets. Antey-2500 system is mounted on tracked cross-country vehicles provided with self-contained power supply systems and navigation, surveying and positioning equipment.
A grouping, consisting of several AD missile systems, is controlled by the Polyana-D4M1 AD brigade-level automated command post.
Unique in the world system capable to struggle effectively with unstrategic ballistic missiles tactical and operative targets with distance of up to 2500 km, is russian SA"Antey-2500".
The perfecting tactical and operative - tactical of ballistic missiles, including magnification of distance of their shooting, has required qualitative increase of performances of zenith rocket systems (AirDefence) of a defense (d). Today about 30 countries have unstrategic ballistic missiles of various distance of an operation. Such ballistic missiles are "Atamks", "Ades", "Dunfen-3", "Dunfen-15", "Dunfen", "Skad-S", "Pershing", "Ierihon-2" and other. In a number of the states the programs on production and acceptance in service of rocket systems of average distance of an operation capable will be realized to decide operative - strategically problems.
The creation of a russian system "Antey-2500" just also was caused by such tendency of development of means of an attack. As has shown experience of war in the Persian gulf the selected direction has appeared duly and correct. The Americans were compelled to attend to perfecting of the system already upon termination of battle operations in a Gulf. This work and now is even far from completion.
Mobile universal antimissile and anti-aircraft system "Antey-2500" concerns to a new generation of systems antimissile and anti-aircraft. It is intended for a defense of the important state, military and industrial objects, groupings army from impacts of ballistic and aerodynamic means of an air attack. "Antey-2500" - unique in the world a universal remedy A and airdefence, capable effectively to struggle as with ballistic missiles with distances of up to 2500 km, and with all kinds of the aerodynamic and aeroballistic purposes.
"Antey-2500" is capable conduct autonomous combat operations in all kinds of military conflicts, in any regions of a planet. If necessary it can be integrated in national control systems forces and weapons.
The system "Antey-2500" is capable to fire simultaneously at 24 aerodynamic targets, switching on objects, or 16 ballistic missiles with a reflecting effective surface up to 0,02 2, flying with velocities of up to 4500 min/sec.
"Antey-2500" has not analogs in the world which is capable to struggle with head parts of ballistic missiles, launched from distance of 2500 kms. The system has excellent parameters on a criterion "efficiency - cost".
In "Antey-2500" missiles 9M82M and 9M83M for want of preservation of constant dimensional performances are applied new, developed KB"Innovator",, of principles of construction of the guidance system and principles of an operation of combat equipment of missiles 9M82, 9m83 is wide of a known system with - S-300V. They have the much greater distance of an operation by higher efficiency of a defeat of all kinds tactical and operative - tactical ballistic and ballistic missiles. For want of it the manoeuvrable performances of rockets 9I82I, 9I83I are essentially enlarged, that allows to strike the heavily maneuvering purposes. The possibility of struggle with the high-speed ballistic targets with a small reflecting surface is reached at the expense of increase of performances of radar-tracking information means and optimization of methods of processing of radar-tracking signals.
Full automation of combat work, high use reliability, application of modern means of search and fault recovery have defined minimum number of accounts and do not require large time for their preparation. The rockets 9I82I are intended for an erasure tactical, operative - tactical and average distance ballistic missiles, and also aerodynamic targets on distances up to 200 kms. For want of it the rocket is controled on all site of flight trajectory. The developer and manufacturer of a system - "Concern" Antey" - guarantees service of arms and military engineering during all term of its operation.
The brief tactical-characteristics of a system "Antey-2500" in a comparison with a system with - S-300V and upgraded system " Patriot PAK-3 " are indicated in the table.
In other words, unique in the world system capable effectively to struggle with unstrategic ballistic missiles tactical and operative - tactical targets with distance of up to 2500 km, is russian SA "Antey-2500". Let's underline, that in difference from other similar systems consisting in service, system "Antey-2500", no less than the system with - S-300V, initially formed as a means of struggle with BM and other high-speed 'stealth', high-maneuvrable and hard to shot targets. The unique combat possibilities SA "Antey-2500" managed to be achieved due to deep and long researches of institutes, KB and factories of the industrial company "Concern" Antey " with use of the advanced reachings in the field of radar-tracking information systems and missile development, and also large volume of experimental work and launches till a various type to the ballistic and aeroballistic targets.