Table 1. Active ships [NAVY]
Laid: 29.10.85. Sovremenny-11. 676 (1989), 786 (1991), 715 (1993)
31.10.1989 entered PAC.
5 -8.6.1990 visited Kiel (Germany).
23 -30.8.1993 visited Zindao (China).
31.8 -4.9.1993 visited Pusan (S. Korea).
1993 -2002 overhaul. 08.2006: took part in Naval parade in PAC. 02.2008 visited by PAC Navy CINC and Promorie governor. 07.2008 exercises in Japanese sea. 08.2008 launched Sunburn AShM. 03.2009 complex PAC exercises, atry msl firings. 04.2009 took part in joint Rus-French exercises SAREX. 05.2010 exercises on PAC. 09.2010 fire in machinery, 2 sailors dead. 09.2011 tactical exercises. 09.2013 sea drills in Okhot sea.
434 ADMIRAL USHAKOV
Laid: 16.04.90. Deployed with Kuznetsov on maiden deployment, Dec 95. Sovremenny-17. Overhauled 2003. 694 (1993), 678 (1995), 434 (1996)
21.1.1994 entered NOR. Ex-Besstrashny. 2001-2003 overhaul. 2004 renamed to Admiral Ushakov. 07.2007 took part in exercises in NOR. 2009 overhaul at Sevmash. 04.2011 joint tactical exercises. 09.2011 comd staff exercises. 08.2012 arty and AD exercises.
11.2.1992 entered BAL.
Participated in BALTOPS 97, Sovremenny-15. 678 (1992), 620 (1993). 2004: in overhaul at Yantar'. 2006: re-entered Navy. 09.2007 located in Baltyysk. 04.2008 sistership during visit of Danish frigate to Baltyysk. 11.2008 visited by youth organization delegation.
Laid: 8.01.87. Sovremenny-13. 672 (1990), 711 (1991), 754 (1993).
29.12.1990 entered PAC.
15 -19.6.1991 visited Antwerpen (Belgium). 1999 in overhaul. 2002 located in Fokino. Overhaul? 2004 located in Vladivostok, 2005 overhaul at Dalzavod. 07.2009 visited by municipal delegation.
Laid: 4.11.83. Sovremenny-9. 9.11.1988 entered PAC. Active Pacific Fleet; visited Pusan, ROK in Apr 2000. While in port near Vladivostok on 10 Apr 2000, accidentally discharged AK-630, striking Admiral Vinogradov with a practice round (there were no injuries).677 (1988), 795 (1990), 778 (1994).
2004: commander capt. 1 rank Alexander Kuzminets. 04.2004: took part in military exercises, launched SSNs. 08.2005 took part in Peace Mission 2005 (Russia-China) exercises. 07.2006: overhaul at Zvezda(?). 12.2007 located at Dalzavod. 2008 for decommission?
Laid: 7.04.88. Ex- Moskovsky Komsomolets. Sovremenny-16. 675 (1992), 610 (1993), 810 (1994), 610 (1996)
5.2.1993 entered BAL.
19 -26.6.1993 visited Kiel (Germany). 2004-2005 overhaul.
07.2005: took part in BalTops 2005 trainings. 2006 commander: capt 1 rank Sergey Pinchuk. 07.2006, 2007 took part in Naval Parade in Kaliningrad. 12.2006 visited by Sweden delegation. 2007: flagship of BAL, commander capt 1 rank Oleg Gurinov. 09.2007 located in Baltyysk. 07.2008 visited Finland, Sweden, Poland, Danmark. 11.2008 visited by famous Russian movie actor and director Evgeny Grishkovets.
[CROSSREFERENCES | ARMAMENT:]
full load 7,940
Principal dimensions, m: 156.5 x 17.2 x 5,99
Propulsion steam turbine
Power, hp 2 x 50,000
High-pressure boilers 4
Propellers 2, fixed-pitch
Range, miles 1,345 (at 32.7 knots), 3,920 (at 18 knots)
4,500 (at 18 knots, maximum fuelled)
Generating capacity, kW:
turbogenerators 2 x 1,250
diesel-generators 4 x 600
Aviation fuel stock, t 5
Endurance, days 30
missiles: Moskit antiship missile complex,
2 x 4 launchers (8 ASM)
air-defense gun-missile complexes: Shtil air-defense missile complex,
2 x 1 launchers (48 ADM);
130mm AK-130 multipurpose
gun mount 2 x 2 (2,000 rounds);
30mm AK-630 AD gun mount;
4 x 6 (16,000 cartridges)
antisubmarine weapons: 533mm torpedo tubes 2 x 2
RBU-1000 A/S roket launcher 2 x 6 (48 rockets)
aviation Ka-27 helicopter
electronic equipment: tactical situation plotting board;
antiship missile fire control system;
air-defense missile complex fire control system;
torpedo fire control system;
air target acquisition radar;
three navigation radar;
130mm gun fire control radar;
30mm air-defense gun mount fire control radar;
active/passive underkeel sonar;
electronic countermeasures system
2 x PK-2 decoy dispenser system (200 rockets)
KA-27/29/32 Helix* Naval helicopter
Ka-32 - last machine of N. Kamov. The helicopter has made its first flight on December 24, 1973, after a month after death of the designer. Military variant of this helicopter is Ka-27. In West the helicopters of the given type for the first time are known in a 1981, when they were remarked ...[+]
AK 630 /M/M2
The AK-630M-MR-123-02 Artillery system is intended for defence of the surface ships from precision guided weapons, fixed/rotary wing aircraft, as well as for engagement of small sea and coastal targets and floating mines.
The system comprises the AK-630M Gun Mount, MR-123-02 Fire Control ...[+]
Antisubmarine weapon systems using depth charges occupy an important place among various antisubmarine weapons now operational with navies.
In the Russian Navy, the most widely used shipborne weaponry of this type is represented by Smerch family antisubmarine rocket systems.
One such example ...[+]
Owing to basic performance characteristics, the Russian torpedoes are on a par with their foreign counterparts and even surpass them in terms of reliability and ease of operation.
The modern torpedo is one of the most effective weapons in submarine warfare. Torpedoes constitute the primary ...[+]
As demonstrated by the experience of local conflicts, the role of naval gun armament increased considerably in recent years despite the intensive introduction of missile armament. Heightened attention to naval gun armament is attributable first and foremost to the wane in the euphoria of naval ...[+]
SS-N-22 Sunburn / Kh-41 (ASM-MSS) Moskit
The MOSKIT Shipborne Missile System is intended to engage surface ships. It consists of an anti-ship cruise missile, a launcher, automated control system, and ground equipment. As soon as the missile reaches the target area, the onboard missile guidance system autonomously searches, selects ...[+]
SA-N-7 Gadfly / Shtil
The unique SHTIL Shipborne Medium-range Multitarget Surface-to-Air missile Complex: ensures all-round collective protection of convoys, naval task forces, and self-defence of the carrier ship against air attacks; effectively intercepts anti-ship missiles and aircraft by homing missiles in ...[+]
Russian naval mines are unrivaled for their performance characteristics, reliability and ease of operation. Russian scientists and designers of virtually all classes of mines have captured the lead in their development.
Naval mines may be "dangerous invisible" enemy or partner enabling ...[+]
The FREGAT-MAE shipborne 3D radars are intended for surveillance and acquisition of the maritime and aerial targets.
Additionally to the basic FREGAT-MAE radar, there are three modifications available. The FREGAT-MAE-2 radar features higher level of the transmitted power.
The FREGAT-MAE-3 ...[+]
The AK-130-MR-184 Artillery System is intended to engage sea, coastal, and aerial targets, including low flying anti-ship missiles. The system is designed for the medium and large displacement ships.
It comprises the AK-130 Gun Mount, the MR-184 Fire Control Radar System, and the ammunition ...[+]
MR-184 SHIPBORNE ARTILLERY FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM
Designed to control the fire of AK-130 artillery mounts
against air, sea and coastal targets.
The system comprises a two-band target tracking
radar, TV tracker, moving target selection, antijamming
equipment, and control devices.
The system performs the following functions:
- receives target ...[+]
When in the end of 1960’s., finally, it was acknowledged, that the naval artillery of medium caliber has its prospect - at least as the means of the destruction of pinpoint targets on the shore with the solution of the problems of the fire support of landing, - located in the Navy of the USSR ships with 130… 152-mm artilleries (destroyers pr. Ç0bis, 56 and 56A, cruisers of pr. 68bis) already reached solid age, and for their replacement the new ones were necessary. Taking into account these circumstances, in the end of 1960’s- beginning 1970’s the specialists began the works on the research design " of the ship of the fire support of landing ".
Specially for this ship the development of a new 130- mm automatic tower gun mount began. They first prepared two versions: one-instrument and twin. In spite of large overall sizes and complexity - obviously, taking into account only large fire productivity, - CINC of the Navy the Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union S.G.Gorshkov gave the indication to make a further design of the ship under two-barrel gun mount, which later received the designation AK-130. However, the one-instrument version, exceeded at that time all foreign analogs, was temporarily set aside.
The Navy gave out to Severnoe KB in 1971 the technical order of the design “of the ship of the fire support of the landing”. The project obtained number 956 and cipher "Sarich". I.I.Rubis became the chief designer of project , the captain of 1 ranks I.M.Stetsyura first, and then the captain of 2 ranks V.G.Basov became the main observing from the Navy .
The design of the ship proved to be completely complex, since in the process of work its ultimate purpose changed. Here the initiated in the USA program of creation of the new generation DDs of the type DD963 “Rymond D.Spruance " - the first multipurpose ships of American Navy (the head one was placed in 1972.) showed the significant action. In pr.956, besides the artillery armament, consisted of two 130- mm AK-130, the AD component (Air Defense) has been considerably strengthened, after accepting instead of the planed originally “Uragan”, and also more powerful ASMs - new complex “Mosquit” instead of P-15M.
To go on the level of foreign analog as far as possible for ASW was unreal because of the completely imposing mass-and-size characteristics of “Polynom” hydroacoustic complex and the absence aboard the ship of reserves, which previously were consumed to the installation of the powerful artillery armament (mass of two gun mounts of the main battery with the feed system of ammunition it was near 300t). Thus, on the artillery and ADGM the ship of pr.956. of coarse, exceeded the American “Spruance”, and the antisubmarine armament “Sarich” came out weak: two RBU-1000 and so many two-funnelled 533- mm torpedo-tubes, flight deck with the movable hangar- shelter for the antisubmarine helicopter Ka -25 (later than Ka -27) of temporary basing and small “Platina- S” hydroacoustic complex with the antenna in the nose bulb fairing. Thus, the ASW means ensured only the self-defence of the ship from the sbmarine torpedo attacks. Taking into account these circumstances, the solution about the creation of system of two ships was accepted. The ship SSN and ASW (Air Defense) - pr.956, and the specialized antisubmarine warfare ship, created in the development of pr.1135 and received design number 1155. Actually, the combined actions of pr.956 and pr.1155 in the composition of compounds and groups were planned. Initially it was intended to build 50 ships of both projects, but later the program underwent the reduction.
As a powerplant for the ship of pr.956 first the gas turbine was examined, but CINC of the Navy after the conference with the V.E.Butoma has made a decision about the selection of the steam turbines. Its substantiations were reduced to the following: YTZ ( basic supplier of gas turbines for Soviet Navy ) will not be able to provide with turbines the entire program of the building of new ships, and to lose steam-turbine shop at the Kirov plant is unwise. Furthermore, in the case of difficulties with the diesel fuel in the fleet there will always be the ships, using as the fuel petroleum residue or even crude oil. Solution, as we see, was completely substantiated, but it was realized without taking into account many special features of operation of steam turbines, in which the more stressed boilers, than on pr.56 were used. Powerplant of pr.956 required in the operation the qualified withdrawal, which wasn’t always provided in the fleets. In its time, when in powerplant of the ships of pr.56 the high parameters of vapor were injected, the supply of air into the boilers was “closed”. Now, making the following step in the direction of an increase in the tension of boilers, obviously, it was necessary to undertake the corresponding step in a change of the installation of the diagram as a whole, so “to shut” entire system of feed water. But this did not occur.
According to the last classification, accepted in the Navy of the USSR in 1977 ; the ship began to be named destroyer of the 1st rank. Its final designation was defined as the inflicting of the missile strikes on the enemy surface ships, the rendering of fire support to landing, and also AD and defence of ships and transports. The head ship of pr.956. received the designation “Sovremenniy”, was laid on Leningrad SSZ of A.A.Zhdanov on March 3, 1976 ; it was launched on November 18, 1978. it was put into operation on December 25, 1980. The final tests the ship passed in the Black sea until August 1982. Until 1991 the plant built and returned to the fleet 14 ships of pr.956. The building continued after 1991:. a series was limited to 19 units. Until 1995 it was possible to return four more destroyers, two latter were finished on “Severnaya verf” (earlier ÑÑÇ of A. A.Zhdanov) for C.P.R. (Chinese Peoples' Republic)
By the arrangement of the basic armament the ship of pr.956 in a certain degree repeats the diagram, used in the pr.61 and 61ME. One of the assembly differences is that the helicopter area is raised to the roof of the superstructure and is approximating to the center of the pitching motion, which made it possible to improve the conditions of fitting the helicopter during the significant agitation. However, because of the absence of the system of forced landing and transport of helicopter in the hangar this advantage is lost (in comparison with the pr. 1155). According to helicopter pilots, it’s simplier for them to make the landing on stern area, than to the center (in the case of the error of a pilot the helicopter will not encounter with the superstructure, but only “it will strike a match” on the water). Therefore a question, where to optimally place flight deck, remains open. The temporary hangar – isn’t a forced solution either. On the statement of the project originators of the ship, after making the decision to use the steam boilers the arrangement instead of the shelter of a normal hangar was completely possible, but no one asked this question.
The entire officer and warrant officer composition is placed aboard the ship in the two-place cabins with the area of 10 m.sq., commander - in the habitable block (cabin + washroom), located next to the block of the flag officer. The crew is placed in the crew spaces 10-25 men each. Officers feed in so-called “large wardroom”, located in the superstructure under the pilot room (GKP), and Warrant Officers - in “small wardroom”, located under the helicopter area. Three dining rooms are intended for the nourishment of the crew, placed in the adjacent sections. Aboard the ship the nose and stern everyday devices (latrine plus the bathroom) are located, for the officers and the Warrant Officers - separate latrines. The washing of the personnel occurs in the shower, of the Warrant Officers - in the separate accomodation soul, and of the officers - even in the sauna.
Evaluating the internal arrangement of the accomodations of the ship, one should note, that, in spite of approximately equal measurements with pr.1155, the corridors and passages, and also a number of battle posts on pr.956 are smaller. This special feature is caused by the presence of more “dimensional” boiler-steam powerplant than compact GTE of pr.1155. “borrowed” almost without the changes from the pr.1135, and also more “volumetric” armament (130- mm artillery instead of 100- mm and “Uragan” instead of " Kinjal”).
Attack missile weapon
The development of SSN Moskit, accepted for the armament in 1984. ; began in “Raduga” KB in 1973 under the management of main designer I.Seleznev. It was assumed, that the new missile will replace the P-15 missile aboard launches and ships of average displacement. In the engine installation SSN the PVRD is used, combined with starting RDTT (according to the principle " of matryoshka "). In first 3-4 s. after launching the booster engine makes possible for a missile to make “a hill”, to obtain an aerodynamic stability in the trajectory, then it burns and is pushed out of march PVRD engine by the incident airflow. At a height 10 m missile has the march speed of m=2,5. The management system of missile consists of INS and noise-shielded active homing. In the air defense zone of target ASM carries out the flak evasive maneuver. However, the salient flight performances, achieved with the retention by powerful warhead (300 kg), led to a significant increase in the mass and overall sizes in comparison with P -15 – in 2 times, The starting mass of missile - is 3950 kg, mass of warhead - 300 kg, flying range - 120 km, march speed - 3000 km/h. On pr. 956 SSNs Moskit are located in two protected fragmentproof armor four launchers. Command system makes it possible to carry out the eight-rocket volley less than in 30 s.
SAN M-22 “Uragan”, being in the arsenal of the ships of pr.956, was created at the beginning of 1970’s on the base of the complex of ground forces. For its tests one of pr.61 was modernized as a pr.61E with the arrangement of one launcher in the nose section. After the sufficiently endurant tests, passed from 1976 until 1982 ; the complex “Uragan” finally was accepted for the armament in 1983. The duration of the tests was caused by the modifications of complex for fulfilling of basic requirement of the Navy: “Uragan must effectively destroy group low and small size aerial targets of the Harpoon or Tomahawk types. The final tests confirmed the fulfilling of this requirement: based on the stories of the participants in the tests, during one of the test launchings Uragan struck even the neglected from RBU-6000 reactive depth charge RGB-60.
On pr.956 there is a regular version of Uragan with two launchers, one of which is located in the nose, on the superstructure of forecastle, and the second - on the stern superstructure, behind the flight deck. The Uragan mass - 96 t (command post - is 36 t, launcher - 60 t); the missile mass - is 690 kg; ammunition - 2 x of 24 missiles; rate of fire - 6 s; number of simultaneously fired targets - 4-6; the range of fire - about 25 km.
The artillery of medium caliber
The development of a 130- mm automatic gun mount À-217 began in “Arsenal” KB in June 1967. Later the Arsenal approached to the development of a twin A -218, possessing the same ballistics. Both gun mounts were demonstrated on the range to the CINC of the Navy, Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union S.G.Gorshkov, who decided to neglect into the production exactly the A -218. The selection was explained by the desire to accept the armament with the larger rate of fire (90 shots/min in A -218 against 45 in A -217). Since this was “purchased” by considerably larger mass, selection is not indisputable - especially with the shooting at coast (and this is a basic task of A -218) major factor is the quantity of ammunition (which, as it is known, does not depend on a quantity of trunk). For the first time the À-218 has been installed on DDG “Sovremenniy” already after the completion of tests.
Together with Management complex “Lev " and mechanisms of loading and recharge they became a part of the artillery complex ÀÊ-130. Mass A -218 – 98 t, “Lev” – 12 t, cellar mechanisms - 40 t, projectile - 32 kg, the shot - 53 kg. the initial velocity of projectile - 850 m/s, the range of fire - to 23 km, rate of fire AK-130 - to 90 shots /min. The presence of the mechanisms of loading and recharge makes it possible to conduct fire to the complete exhaustion of ammunition practically without the manual overload - in contrast to foreign artillery complexes of 127- mm caliber. As special sighting post is used, which is most effective for the delivery of fire on coast targets. From its parameters (especially throughout the practical rate of fire and the mass of projectile) A -218 exceeds foreign analogs- 127- mm USA and Italy. However, it is purchased by a significant mass, which led to the possibility of arrangement of the gun mount aboard the ships with the displacement of more than 6000 tons.
Small-caliber antiaircraft artillery
On the pr.956 there were established the two batteries of small-caliber AA artillery complexes ÀÊ-630 (one from each board) in the composition of two gun mounts and one Management system “Vimpel”. 30- mm ÀÊ-630 was created in 1974 on the base of automaton ÀÎ-18 with the revolving block of six trunks, which was created on the basis of an aircraft cannon. Because of this the AK-630 possesses the rate of fire of more than 4000 shots /min. For an increase in the long burst the stems of the automaton are continuously cooled outside by water. Mass ÀÊ-630 (without the ammunition) - 3,8 t, the mass of projectile - is 0,39 kg, shot - 0,83 kg, range of fire - to 4 km. rate of fire - 5000 shots /min.
Rotation of the sterns was achieved not from the external drive, as it is customary in all foreign automata of a similar construction (American 20- mm “Vulcan” M-61 and others), and due to the energy of solid-reactant gases, taken away alternately from each stem, what made it possible to obtain a compact and light system - with a regular quantity of ammunition of 2000 cartridges. The guidance of AK-630 is accomplished only remotely from RLS “Vimpel” or sighting column. The calculated quantity of one AK-630 battery against ASM “Harpoon” in the middle of 1970’s was evaluated at 0,4-1.0 un.
With its salient characteristics the battery of two ÀÊ-630 because of the worse possibilities of RLS and its arrangement at the significant removal from the axis of shooting was inferior on the accuracy of shooting of one 20- mm Vulcan/Phalanx Mk.15 (USA, 1977).
As the antisubmarine armament on pr.956 the two two-tubes 533- mm torpedo complexes (in the middle part of the ship on the upper deck, onboard) are placed, different torpedoes of the caliber of 533 mm of which can be used incl. universal USET-80. In comparison with its analog - American Mk.48 - domestic torpedo has practically identical running data, but is equipped with electronic management system- consequently, it preserves the excellent running qualities at all depths of combat employment.
2 x RBU-1000 supplement the antisubmarine armament of the ship, placed in the fodder, on the superstructure. They are intended for the destruction of submarines in the neighbor zone at the small depths, and also for the defeat of the torpedoes going against the ship.
On the pr.956 installed RLS of last generation, created in the end 1970’s. RLS of cm- range “Fregat- M”, “Fregat -M2” and “Fregat- MA” (from the 1st to the 3rd ships - “Fregat- M”, further “Fregat -M2”, then “Fregat- MA”).
As the means of target designation to the ship ÓÐÎ the complex “Mineral” is used. It has an active radar channel with the possibility of below-the-horizon detection of surface targets, and a passive radar channel. Furthermore, there is a channel for target designation from the helicopters and aircrafts. For the detection of underwater targets “Platina- S” complex is installed, which was developed in 1970’s, and for the detecting of the underwater saboteurs - special station MG-7.
The power plant
956 is the only in the world ship of the 3rd generation with steam boilers. Its two-hall powerplant arrangement. In each section located two boiler units and one GTZA with the operating mechanisms. Prolonged use of the first ship steam boilers of the 2nd generation KV-76, made for the high parameters of the vapor (64 atm, 450°C), it confirmed their high operating characteristics. For increasing the efficiency of boiler system, the decrease of its mass and overall sizes in the installations of the 3rd generation the passage to the high-pressure boilers, working with the significant preheating of air was realized. As the experience of intensive operating of ships with the high-pressure boilers showed, the passage to such boiler units for domestic Navy proved to be technically and organizationally unprepared. Boiler system of the 3rd generation is standard for the ships built in the1960’s., however, each installation of different designs of ships has its special features. The application of high-pressure boiler units in comparison with the boilers KV-76 of the installations of the 2nd generation made it possible to obtain a number of the advantages: - the specific mass of boilers was reduced in 1,4 times: - The efficiency of boilers on the peak load increased to 11%; - the calorific intensity of furnace cavity increased to 3; - the application of TNA reduced the temperature of stack gases to 100-110°C.
All this made it possible to decrease the volume of MKO, referred to 1 t of the vapor produced, 2 times and to reduce the input time of boiler into the action to 15 min. The deficiency in the high-pressure boilers are: - reduction in the temperature of an overheated vapor on the light loads, which worsens the efficiency of powerplant; - the intensification of corrosive processes and reduction in the resource of the heating surfaces as a result of the high calorific intensity of furnace cavity; - the relatively high values of the excess air ratio on the light and medium loads of boiler, which decreases efficiency of powerplant. Two-furnace GTZA include turbines of high and low pressure. The astern turbine is located in the housing of TND. At the forward running of pairs of TVD through the receiver enters in TND and is further removed in the main capacitor.
For the guarantee with the electric power aboard the ship there are two steam turbine generators 1200 kW each and four reserve diesel generators 600 kW each. The generators ensure all users of the ship with alternating three-phase current with a frequency of 50 Hz and with a stress of 400 v. For the completion of the leakages of feed water, and also for the preparation of drinkable and washing water on 956 there are two distillation units. For the operational provisions of an airconditioning system the four steam-ejector refrigerators by refrigerating capacity on 300 thousand kcal/h are established. For the guaranteeing of a stand regime and preparation of the powerplant for the action there is an auxiliary boiler installation, including one auxiliary boiler with a steaming capacity 12 t/h.
General estimation of ship
Evaluating the ship of pr.956 in the comparison with American DDG Spruance - the ship, in response to which 956 destroyer, according to corrected technical order , was created, it is possible to conclude, that pr.956 considerably exceeds Spruance as on the solution of problem of Air Defense, as an attack, being inferior in ASW (which, as has already been spoken, pr. 1155 had to solve).
However, to compare pr.956 with the English, French and Italian destroyers built 1970-1990’s is useless, because the combat capabilities of pr.956 here are out of the competition (according to a good expression of specialists, “these are simply puppies in comparison with the wolfhound”).
Certainly, on a number of fighting opportunities pr.956 concedes to last American DDG "Arleigh Burke", but it is insignificant. The opportunities of Aegis were checked on reflection of attack of SSN Moskit (the USA have bought some number of ASMs), and they have appeared sad enough for Americans- the majority of missiles has passed through Aegis.
Let's remind, that pr.956 AD complexes can destroy the small supersonic targets, therefore in comparison with new American DDG Russian ship looks reliably enough.
However, a similar comparison will be not completely correct. The matter is that all created after World War II (in any case, to the middle 1980-s.) large foreign combat ships correspond more to Russian “BPK” class, but not DDG. Their basic task is the defense of "last boundary" (especially ASW) of the aircraft carrier, all the rest the carrier-based aviation had to solve.
Our DDG was created, first of all, precisely as "anti - DDG ". Therefore if at the end 1970- s the command of the USSR Navy decided to approach the creation of the balanced oceanic (carrier-based) fleet, then the place for the ships of pr.956 in this fleet would not be located, and the Navy would go only with pr.1155.
956 was created as after the USA, without the proper lead in the scientific and technical plan. As a result after only 10 years the Americans not only reduced their delay but also they exceeded, after introducing into the composition of its fleet of the multipurpose DDG "Arleigh Burke".
Their superiority in AD and ASMs Russian ships of pr. 61Ì held almost 20 years - up to DDG "Kidd" type appearance. And this despite the fact that Russia had a possibility to create instead of the "956" multipurpose ship, commensurate as far as possible like "Arleigh Burke", 11 years earlier than the USA! This ship had to become gas-turbine "hybrid" - "956+1155", but from several "reduced" hydroacoustic complex and with AD S-300 F "Fort" (so-called "Fal"). The study of a similar ship (pr. 11560) was conducted at the end of 1970’s in parallel from pr.956 and 1155. However, this ship in no way was entered in the "ideology" of the Soviet fleet, where all ships were especially specialized. Navy commanders realized the error after 15 years, but time proved to be missed...
However, Severnoe KB managed its task wonderfully: for not only it was possible to it to create a well armed and exceeding all foreign analogs on the number of the decided problems (except ASW) ship, but also a boiler and turbine ship of the 3rd generation with the splendid seaworthiness the only in the world.
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