Table 1. Active ships [NAVY]
B 276 KOSTROMA
30.12.1987 entered 6 div in Zapadnaya Litsa;
09-10.1988 military exercises.
08-11.1989 military exercises.
06-09.1990 military exercises
05.-07.1991 military exercises.
20.06.1991 transferred to Vidyaevo
11.02.1992 during patrol in Barents Sea collided with US SSN-689 "Baton Rouge".
28.03-29.06.1992 repairs at Nerpa.
3.06.1992 renamed to B-276;
6.04.1993 renamed to Krab.
04-06.1994 military exercises.
15.11.1996 renamed to Kostroma.
2000 + repairs at Nerpa. 2005: re-entered Navy.
B 336 PSKOV
3.06.1992 renamed to B-336.
21.01.1994 entered 6 div (1fl) in Zapadnaya Litsa.
6.04.1993 renamed to Okun'.
1994 entered 7 div (9th Esc) in Vidyaevo.
3.04.1996 renamed to Pskov.
5.03.2003 fire during repairs at SRZ-82 in Roslyakovo.
B 534 NIZHNY NOVGOROD
14.03.1991 entered 6 div at Zapadnaya Litsa.
3.06.1992 renamed to B-534;
6.04.1993 renamed to Zubatka.
1994 transferred to 7 div (9thd.) in Vidyaevo.
25.03.1995 renamed to Nizhny Novgorod.
12.2000 decommissioned, transferred to Nerpa for overhaul.
2003: overhaul funded, re-entered Navy. 12.2007 overhaul at Nerpa.
B 239 KARP
7.12.1984 entered 6 div at Zapadnaya Litsa;
1985 deep water trials at Norwegian Sea.
1986-1990 operative patrol.
1990 nominated as best ship, awarded by CINC price "For the best spying" and Red banner of CINC.
1990 -1992 operative patrol.
3.07.1992 renamed to B-239;
6.04.1993 renamed to Karp.
11.12.1994 transferred to Zvezdochka for repairs.
30.05.1998 due to lack of funds for overhaul - decommissioned and transferred to reserve. 2007: probably will be repaired.
[CROSSREFERENCES | ARMAMENT:]
D. (tons): 5,200-7,200 tons surfaced
6,800-10,100 tons submerged [Sierra I]
10,400 tons submerged [Sierra II]
Speed (kts): 18 knots surfaced
35-36 knots submerged
Operating Depth: 2,300 feet Maximum Safe Depth
2,625 feet Never-Exceed Depth
3,000 feet Crush depth
Dimensions (m): 107.0 meters long [Sierra I]
110.5-112.7 meters long [Sierra II]
11.2-12.3 meters beam
8.5-9.5 meters draft (surfaced) [Sierra I]
9.4 meters draft (surfaced) [Sierra II]
Endurance: 4,500 full power hours
50 days stores endurance
M./Engine: 1 OK-650 190 MWt presurized-water nuclear reactor same model as that used in Project 971 (Akula) generating a power of 47 000 hp. Uses the same type of reactor as that on the Mike class submarine Komsomolets with a power capacity of 190 MWt
steam turbines 47-50,000 shp
1 7 bladed propeller, titanium hull
Man./Crew: 59-61 [31 officers / 28-30 enlisted]
AS-15 Kent/SS-N-21 Sampson,
P-100 Oniks/SS-N-22 Sunburn anti-ship missiles (?),
2 RPK-6 Vodopod/SS-N-16 Stallion rocket delivered nuclear depth charges
RPK-7 Vodopei/SS-N-16 Stallion rocket-delivered homing torpedoes
1 Strela SAM SA-N-5/8 position
4 x 21" (533mm) bow mounted Torpedo Tubes [two internal and two external]
w/BA-111 Shkval underwater rocket, SET-72, TEST-71M, USET-80 torpedoes
4 x 25.6" (650mm) bow mounted Torpedo Tubes
w/ Type 65-76 (650mm)
42 mines in lieu of torpedoes
Sonar: Chiblis Surface Search radar
Medvyedista-945 Navigation system
Molniya-M Satellite communications
Tsunami, Kiparis, Anis, Sintez and Kora Communications antennas
MGK-80 (?) Underwater communications
Paravan Towed VLF Antenna
Vspletsk Combat direction system
MGK-503 Skat suite,active/passive Sonar
Akula flank arrays Sonar
Pelamida towed array Sonar
MG-70 mine detection sonar
2 MG-74 Korund noise simulation decoys (torpedo-sized)
MT-70 Sonar intercept receiver
SS-N-16 Stallion / RPK-6 Vodopod
Surface ship system firing 82R torpedo or 90R nuclear depth charge missile in 53.3 cm version and 83R torpedo carrying or 86R nuclear depth charge in 65 cm version.
The SS-N-16 (Stallion) is a Russian 650mm calibre anti-ship missile capable of being fitted with a 10-20 kT warhead or a Type ...[+]
Russian naval mines are unrivaled for their performance characteristics, reliability and ease of operation. Russian scientists and designers of virtually all classes of mines have captured the lead in their development.
Naval mines may be "dangerous invisible" enemy or partner enabling ...[+]
SS-N-22 Sunburn / Kh-41 (ASM-MSS) Moskit
The MOSKIT Shipborne Missile System is intended to engage surface ships. It consists of an anti-ship cruise missile, a launcher, automated control system, and ground equipment. As soon as the missile reaches the target area, the onboard missile guidance system autonomously searches, selects ...[+]
SA-13 GOPHER / 9K35 Strela-10
The SA-13 GOPHER [ZRK-BD Strela-10] is a short-range, low altitude SAM system. The SA-13 missile (9M37) is 2.2 m long, 0.12 m in diameter with a 0.4 m wingspan and has a maximum speed of Mach 2. It carries a 5 kg HE warhead and is fitted with either an improved passive lead ...[+]
Owing to basic performance characteristics, the Russian torpedoes are on a par with their foreign counterparts and even surpass them in terms of reliability and ease of operation.
The modern torpedo is one of the most effective weapons in submarine warfare. Torpedoes constitute the primary ...[+]
AS-15 Kent ALSM/ SS-N-21 Sampson / Kh-55
The Kh-55 strategic cruise missile is used for destroying known relatively fixed position targets; its guidance system combines inertial-Doppler navigation and position correction based on in-flight comparison of terrain in the assigned regions with images stored in the memory of an on-board ...[+]
The development of a large nuclear multi-purpose submarine project was started in March 1972. Essentially the most important element of the new SSN was an application for a strong titanium alloy case with a fluidity limit of 70-72 kg*s/mm2 during manufacture, this providing the increase in limiting immersion depth by a factor of 1.5 in comparison with the second generation SSN's.
The use of a titanium alloy of high specific durability allowed the case weight and displacement of the SNN to be reduced by up to 25-30% during construction and made its transportation by internal waterways possible. Besides, the titanium design allowed the magnetic field of the ship to be reduced sharply (on this parameter the 945 project SSN's maintains world leadership among submarines even now).
However the use of the titanium contributed to the essential growth of the SSN's cost and for technological reasons limited the number of ships constructed, as well as the number of shipbuilding enterprises that participated in the program (the titanium case construction technology had not been mastered in Komsomolsk-na-Amur).
In comparison with the previous generation SSN's the torpedo-missile complex of a new SSN should have possessed twice the amount of ammunition, due to the usage of new ammunition, the advanced target designation system, the increased range of firing (three times for the missile-torpedo's and 1,5 times for torpedo's) and the increased combat readiness (time of preparation of the first volley for firing was reduced by a factor of two).
In December 1969 in OKB Minaviaprom "Innovator" and under the direction of the main designer L.V.Lyulev the work on the new second generation anti-submarine missile complexes, Vodopad ("Falls") (calibre 533 mm) and Veter ("Wind") (650 mm) began, intended above all to generate equipment for perspective 3-rd generations SSN's.
Unlike the predecessor, ASW "Blizzard-53", Vodopad should have been completed with both a special fighting component, and a self-directed small-sized torpedo UMGT-1 (developed by NPO Uran) with a detection range of 1.5km on the acoustic channel, a course range of up to 8 km and the maximum speed 41 knots. The two components of the complete unit considerably expanded the weapons usage range. In comparison with the complex "Blizzard-53", the Vodopad's maximum missile start depth sharply increased (up to 150), the firing range (from depths of 20-50 m - 5-50 km, from 150 m - 5-35 km) was also increased and the starting preparation time (10 s) essentially decreased.
Veter having twice the maximum range of Vodopad could also be completed with either a UMTG torpedo, or a nuclear warhead. The Vodopad complex with the index RPK-6 entered Naval armaments in 1981 (not only were SSN's equipped with it, but also surface ships), and Veter "Wind" (RPK-7) - in 1984.
One more new type of weapon was introduced on the 3-rd generation SSN's, a long-distance torpedo of the TAST-71 type, self-directed in two planes. It has been intended to defeat submarines and was equipped with an active-passive hydroacoustic homing system, which together with a wired telecontrol system provided the guidance in two planes.
The presence of the telecontrol system allowed the submarine to carry out the control over the torpedo's manoeuvring and homing equipment, and to operate them during after firing. The operator onboard the SSN, depending on a tactical situation, could override or prevent the torpedo's homing.
The electric power plant provided the torpedo with movement in two modes - search (for the speed of 24 knots) and an approach mode (40 knots) with repeated switching modes. The maximal course range (depending on prevailing speed) was within the limits of 15-20 km. The search and target defeat depth was 2-400 m. On a reserve usage level the TAST-71 considerably surpassed the American piston engine torpedo Mk.48, though over comparable ranges the latter had a slightly greater approach speed (50 knots).
For target designation and illumination for both underwater and surface conditions the ship was equipped with the advanced hydroacoustic complex MGK-500 (503) "Skat". Owing to the decreased SSN acoustic signature and the reduction of the limitations of hydro-acoustic complex activity, target detection range in comparison with the second generation SSN's has increased more than twice.
The new radio-electronic arms systems allowed the mistakes made when defining a location to be reduced by a factor of five and also the intervals between the coordinates definition to be increased. The communication range has increased by a factor of two, and the radio signals reception depth has increased by a factor of three.
To examine the questions surrounding the technology and to look at survivability the "Krasnoe Sormovo" shipyard constructed a natural titanium alloy compartment and a scaled-down compartment from the other stronger titanium alloy intended for the use on perspective super deep-water SSN's. The compartments were delivered to Severodvinsk where in a special dock-chamber static and fatigue tests occurred.
The 945 class SSN is intended for the combat conducting not only against the missiles enemy submarines, but also against the surface ships of CV groups. The fighting potential increase was attained due to the improvement in the missile-torpedo and torpedo armaments, the progress in the development of detection systems, target designation systems, communication, navigation, installation of information-operating complexes and also the improvement in basic performance elements - speed, immersion depth, manuverability, reserve, reliability and survivability.
The 945-class submarine is executed under the two-case scheme. The first case has the ellipsoidal forward and spindle-shaped fodder extremities, "limo" sliding devices and fighting cabin protection, also a high fodder plumage on which the cowl for the hydroacoustic complex array is located. The closing of outboard apertures is carried out by means of the scupper shutters and the valves on all of the main ballast tanks.
The strong case constructed from a titanium alloy, has a rather simple shape - a cylindrical middle with conical extremities. The compartment partitions are spherical. The design of the tanks fastening to the strong outer case deflects pressure arising during the boats submersion. The case of the boat is divided into six waterproof compartments. There is a system for the emergency blowing of the two main ballast two tanks by means of firm fuel combustion products.
The SSN is equipped with an emergency escape chamber, capable of containing its whole crew. The main power installation provides 43000 h.p. and includes one water-moderated nuclear reactor OK-650A (180 mvt) and one indented gear unit. Reactor has four steam and gas generators, two circulating pumps for the first and fourth contours, and three pumps for the third contour.
The SSN is equipped with two turbo generators of alternating current, two feeder and two condenser pumps. For the service of power consumers of a constant current there are two groups of storage batteries and two converters.
The rowing multiblade screw has improved hydroacoustic characteristics and a reduced frequency of rotation.
In case of the failure of the main power installation subsequent emergency sources of electrical power and a reserve means of movement are activated. There are two diesel engine-generators DG-300 with converters (2 x 500 (750?) h.p.) with a stock of fuel for 10 days. They are intended for the supply of direct current for the rowing electric motors and for general ship consumers.
For the maintenance of movement under water with the speed of up to 5 knots the SSN is equipped with two rowing electric motors with a direct current capacity of 300 (370?) kw, each of which works on its own screw.
The SSN is equipped with the MGK-500 (503) Skat-KS hydroacoustic complex (with analogue information processing). The Molniya-Mts communication complex includes a satellite communication system and a towed aerial Paravan complex.
The missile-torpedo armament complex and combat information-operating system provides single and salvo firings without restrictions on the depth of immersing (down to limiting). The ship has a traditional double-row torpedo tubes arrangement. In the forward compartment racks for ammunition storage with devices of longitudinal and cross-section submission are situated. Under the torpedo tubes there is a shield with the basic hydroacoustic complex array. A fire unit can carry up to 40 weapons - missile-torpedo and torpedo's, probably mines.
For the decreases in the level of physical fields two-cascade amortization is applied to all mechanisms and devices. All equipment operates in a quiet mode and is located on amortized blocks.
The further development of the project 945 was the 945A project (code "Kondor"). The basic differences from the SSN's of the previous series were the altered weapons structure, including six 533-mm torpedo devices. The strategic cruise missiles "Granat", intended for the defeat of ground targets at ranges up to 3000 km have been included in the unit. The SSN's have also been equipped with 8 Igla "Needle" missile complexes.
The number of waterproof compartments has increased up to seven. The SSN has received an advanced power installation with a capacity of 8.000 h.p. and the OK-650B (190 mvt) nuclear reactor. In sliding columns two taxiing up devices (at 370 h.p.) have been placed. In terms of unmasking attributes (acoustic signature and magnetic field) the boats of the project 945A class became the most undetectable in the Soviet Navy.
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